What are the two major models of human origin and their supporters.txt

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What are the two major models of human origin and their supporters.txt
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  1. What are the two major models of human origin and their supporters?
    • Replacement (out of Africa) supported by Chris Stringer
    • Regional continuity (multiregionalism) supported by Milford Wolpoff
  2. Replacement theory?
    • Out of Africa
    • AMH evolved in Africa (200-150kya), eventually dispersed out, and replaced archaic Eurasian populations as they met
    • No (or minimal) admixture
    • Complete replacement
  3. Regional continuity?
    • Multiregionalism
    • Older origin of Homo sapiens
    • AMH evolved in concert across Eurasia and Africa
    • Long-range gene-flow between archaic populations
    • No replacement
  4. Not fully AMH, but almost?
    • Florisbad, South Africa
    • Ngaloba Beds, Tanzania (120 kya)
    • KNM-ER 3884, Kenya (270 kya)
    • Omo 2 (Kibish), Ethiopia (195 kya)
    • Jebel Irhoud, Morocco (130 kya)
  5. Fully, anatomically modern human 195 kya to present?
    • Klasies River Mouth, South Africa
    • Border Cave, South Africa
    • Omo I (Kibish), Ethiopia
    • Herto,Ethiopia
    • Singa, Sudan
  6. Jebel Irhound 1?
    • Morocco
    • 130 kya
    • Not completely modern, but very close
    • Big brow ridge
  7. Omo Kibish?
    • Omo I Omo Kibish formation
    • Anatomically modern!
    • Chin!
    • Dated to 195 kya
    • Possibly oldest anatomically modern human remains
  8. Herto?
    • Found near Herto village (Middle Awash, Ethiopia)
    • Hence known as Herto man
    • Dated to 160-154 kya
    • Anatomically modern!
    • Just outside envelope of present-day variation
    • Most similar to an Australian aborigine anatomically
    • Named Homo sapiens idaltu by White et al. (2003)
    • Idaltu means Elder in the Afar language
  9. Herto?
    • Acheulean and MSA tools
    • Discoverers say it evolved anagenetically from Homo rhodesiensis (i.e., Kabwe 1); Textbook calls this African Homo heidelbergensis
    • Herto man appears right as classic Neanderthals arise in Europe
    • Strong fossil data AGAINST multiregionalism
  10. Klasies River Mouth?
    • South African coast caves
    • Lots of AMH bones
  11. Skhul and Qafzeh?
    • First non-African AMH, ~100 kya
    • Found in what is now Israel
    • Clearly modern anatomy
    • Co-existed with Neanderthals
    • Thought to have died off or retreated back into Africa
    • Unsuccessful migration
    • Region had highly variable climate, often inhospitable
    • Serially re-colonized?
    • Neanderthals,AMH,Neanderthal,...
  12. Qafzeh IX?
    • Vertical forehead
    • Reduced brow
    • Canine fossa
    • Definite chin
    • Small anterior teeth
  13. Middle East?
    • First destination outside of Africa, ~60kya
    • Unclear where we entered though
    • Climate
    • Precise timing of migration
    • Northern Dispersal Route
    • Southern Dispersal Route
  14. Australia?
    • No Homo erectus or heidelbergensis known in Australia
    • AMH remains from Lake Mungo
    • Contentious dating
    • As young as ~30kya or as old as ~50kya (Bowler et al. 2003)
    • Genetic evidence corroborates 50 kya
  15. East Asia?
    • Multiregionalists see East Asian traits as evidence of continuity
    • ??smaller face and teeth
    • flatter cheeks
    • rounder foreheads
    • less prominent noses
    • shovel-shaped incisors
    • However, these traits could be homoplasies
    • Product of similar selective forces (specific to E Asia) on both H. erectus and H. sapiens
    • Or product of genetic drift
    • Additionally, not corroborated by other types of data (e.g., mtDNA or nuclear genome sequence data)
  16. Cro-Magnon I?
    • Les Eyzies, France 32 kya
    • Exact migration route into Europe unknown
    • Earliest Europeans
    • Arrive as Neanderthals on way out
  17. Dolni Vestonici (Moravia)?
    • Upper Paleolithic Site
    • ca. 30-25,000 years old
    • structures, activity areas, burials, grave goods, ritual symbolic behavior
  18. Mitochondrial DNA?
    • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited
    • Both males and females inherit it from mother
    • Only females pass it on.
    • No recombination!
    • All modern humans share a mitochondrial common ancestor
    • The mitochondrial Eve, 150-200kya in Africa
    • Non-Africans are clearly a subset of Africans
  19. Models of Human origins (mtDNA)?
    • Clear separation of human mtDNA
    • Modern Human-Neanderthal mtDNA divergence ~350-700 kya
    • The mtDNA + the timing of earliest African AMH =
    • Fact that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis are separate and sister species
  20. Neanderthal Introgression?
    • Advent of the Neanderthal nuclear genome slightly changed the story
    • Neanderthal draft genome sequence compared to genomes from:
    • the San, the Yoruba, (African)
    • the Han Chinese, Papua New Guinea, and France (Non-African)
    • Neanderthal genome slightly more similar to non-Africans than Africans
    • Not unique to any specific non-African groups
    • Later studies with more populations confirmed this
    • First estimated 1-4% introgression in non-African genomes
  21. Neanderthal Introgression?
    • Draft genome sequenced primarily from Vindija, Croatia (40 kya) and also from Mezmaiskaya (65 kya)
    • Higher quality genome from proximal toe phalanx from Denisova cave in the Altai Mountains (>50 kya)
  22. Neanderthal Introgression?
    • introgression has been dated 47-65 kya
    • Higher introgression found in East Asians than Europeans
    • Statistically unclear if South Asians are intermediate or same as Europeans
    • Introgression revised to 1.5-2.1% with new sequence data
    • Not absolutely clear where introgression occurred
  23. Other introgression?
    • Denisovans are an unknown populations (or species?) related to Neanderthals
    • Little morphological data
    • Other than an LM3 and a 5th distal phalanx
    • Found in Denisova Cave in Siberia
    • Modern Oceanians have 3- 6% Denisovan introgression
  24. End result, models of origin?
    • Trace DNA to Africa ~150 kya
    • All have different small bits from other places
  25. What this means for out of Africa?
    • Analogy:
    • Replacement model (Out-of-Africa) is regular coffee
    • Continuity model (Multiregionalism) is decaffeinated coffee (~10% caffeine content)
    • The new Introgression models are like a cup of coffee with ~95% the caffeine of a regular cup
    • Can you call that cup regular or decaf?
    • Does the name you call it change what it is?
    • The name you give it does not matter, it is the numbers that reflect the reality.
  26. Human variation and the race question?
    • Homo sapiens is a polytypic species.
    • Homo sapiens is genetically homogeneous.
  27. Explaining human diversity?
    • 1) Adaptationist Approach
    • Variation is a result of natural selection
    • 2) Historical Approach
    • Variation reflects patterns of population history
  28. Genetic Structure of Human Populations; Rosenberg et al (2002)?
    • 377 highly variable regions of the human genome studied
    • 1056 individuals from 52 populations worldwide
    • ?? Results:
    • 93-95% of variation within groups
    • 3-5% of variation between groups
    • only 8% of alleles regionally exclusive
    • of these, median frequency is 1%
  29. Genetic Diversity of Human Populations; Jobling et al?
    • Branch lengths proportional to genetic distance
    • Space occupied by taxon is proportional to genetic diversity
    • Humans genetically homogeneous by hominoid standards
  30. Genetic Diversity of Human Populations; Prunolli?
    Diversity as a function of geographic distance
  31. Race: biology or culture?
    • Cultural, but conceptualized biologically.
    • Blood and race are symbolically intertwined
    • Classification schemes serve social purposes
    • Race constructed from arbitrary physical characteristics Skin color, hair color, skin, height, etc.
    • To function socially, must be categorical and simple
  32. Race vs Ethnicity?
    • Conceptions of ethnicity
    • temporary & temporal
    • Religious & political symbolism
    • maintain cultural heritage
    • no necessary connection to biological conceptions
    • Race and Ethnicity
    • Confusion of biology and culture mixing and substitution of terms Ultimately incongruent
  33. Racial Classification Schemes?
    • USA
    • Hypodescent (the one drop rule): classifies into minority group
    • Brazil
    • racial classification is not fixed (individuals can change it)
    • still based on skin tone
    • system recognizes more physical variation (500+ race labels)
    • class status (money whitens)
    • South Africa (Apartheid Era)
    • Black, White, Coloured, Indian
    • Population Registration, Group Areas Acts (1950)
    • Pencil test
  34. Linnaeus: systema naturae?
    • (1758) Typological approach to race identifying types within Homo sapiens
    • Homo europaeus
    • Homo afer
    • Homo asiaticus
    • Homo americanus
  35. Johann Blumenbach?
    • 5 human races
    • Ethiopian
    • Caucasoid
    • Mongoloid
    • American
    • Malay
  36. Earnest a. Hooten?
    • American physical anthropologist
    • Non-adaptive traits explain real differences between races.
    • 3 primary races
    • 7 composite races
    • 15 sub-races
  37. Carleton Coon?
    • 1962
    • 5 races
    • Homo sapiens threshold crossed multiple times
    • Some races evolved before others
  38. Stanley Garn?
    • 9 geographical races
    • Amerindian
    • Polynesian
    • Micronesian
    • Melanesian
    • Australian
    • Asiatic
    • Indian
    • European
    • African
  39. Phenotype and Race?
    • Environmental factors
    • -temperature ,altitude, sunlight
    • Socio-cultural factors
    • -diet & nutrition, health care, access to resources
    • Geographic proximity
    • -positively associated with admixture increasingly unimportant since ~1500
  40. Clinal Effect?
    • latitude correlates with darkness of skin
    • Lighter skin: ? vitamin D absorption (prevents rickets); ? skin cancer rates & folate depletion
    • Darker skin: ? vitamin D absorption (prevents hypervitaminosis D, but risk of rickets at high latitudes); ? rates of sunburn, skin cancer & folate depletion; ? frostbite
  41. Adaptive Mismatch?
    • Arctic Peoples = darker than predicted
    • Reasons:
    • Recent arrivals (~10kya)
    • Marine diet high in vitamin D
  42. The classificatory conundrum?
    • Single traits cant reveal totality of variation
    • Multiple traits undermine stable typology
    • Different trait lists require new schemes
  43. Non-metric analysis?
    • Things not measurements
    • Rectangular orbit
    • Wide interorbital area
    • Guttered nasal border
    • S shaped zygmatico-maxillary sulture
  44. ?How many individuals possess all the features used to describe a racial type?
    • European- 35%
    • Asian- 51%
    • African- 17%
  45. Anthropology and Racism?
    • Racial typologies are argued to be biologically rooted
    • Biological roots mean existing sociopolitical system is inevitable
    • Anthropology has been the formal (academic) arbiter of racial thought
    • Disavowal of pure races is due to
    • Lots of good data
    • Reexamination of old data
    • A desire by biological anthropology to repent for past associations
    • Cultural anthropologists understood this before biological anthropologists
    • Summary denials of population differences are also dangerous
  46. Are we still evolving?
    • Cultural adaptation over biological adaptation
    • Culture creates novel environments
    • Environment still impacts biology
  47. Levels of adaptation?
    • Adaptation:
    • Genetic (evolutionary) change
    • Time period: generations
    • Adaptability:
    • Developmental change
    • Time: lifetime/childhood
    • Acclimation (acclimatization):
    • Plastic physiological change
    • Time: minutes/hours/weeks
    • Behavioral/cultural
    • Decisions
    • Time: unconstrained
  48. Human adaptation?
    • Skin Pigmentation
    • Body Shape & Body Size
    • Hair Form & Pigmentation
    • Skin & Fat
    • Physiology
    • Skeletal Variation
  49. Inference of adaptation?
    • 1. existence of a selective agent (environmental stressor)
    • 2. heritability of traits
    • 3. covariation of stressors and traits conferring fitness
  50. Circumpolar cold adaptations?
    • Genetic
    • Different levels of vasoconstriction to the extremities protect against frostbite without losing too much heat
    • Cultural
    • Cold water fish are high in essential fatty acids (EFAs) which may increase blood pressure in the fingers
  51. High altitude?
    • Stressors
    • Hypoxia (reduced available oxygen)
    • Intense solar radiation
    • Cold
    • Low humidity
    • Wind
    • Developmental Effects
    • Slower maturation
    • Greater lung volume Relatively large heart
  52. The Moken Sea Gypsies?
    • Adaptation or Acclimatization?
    • Normal vision on land, but 2X as clear underwater.
    • Other children can be trained to constrict their pupils
    • Unclear if the Moken have a genetic adaptation
  53. Lactose Intolerance?
    • Lactose
    • Carbohydrate in mammal milk
    • Lactaseenzymeallowsustodigest
    • AdultIntolerance
    • Diarrhea, Cramps, Flatulence
    • LactasePersistentAllele(autosomaldominant)
    • Bacteria!!!Make them do the work
    • prevlant in china, south Africa, American Indians, African americans
  54. The pima?
    • ~ 50% of adults have Type II Diabetes Genes
    • Thrifty genotype Hypothesis
    • adaptation for starvation Environment
    • Low incidence in traditional subsistence
    • High incidence in affluent environment
  55. Biomedical anthropology?
    • -Health and Illness from distinct perspectives
    • 1. Evolution
    • 2. Variation
    • 3. Genetics
    • -Epidemiology
    • 1. Quantitative analysis of disease in populations
    • 2. Interest in patterns rather than particulars

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