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Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo rudolfensis Homo erectus characteristics?
- E & S Africa E Africa
- E Africa
- Old World
- 2.4 1.8 Ma 1.8 1.0 Ma 2.4 1.8 Ma 1.8 0.05 Ma
Who is Homo ergaster?
- Proposed in 1975 (Groves & Maza?k)
- Diagnosed by molar size and reduction in premolar root number
- As Homo erectus got messy, H. ergaster served to tidy up.
- Too big for H. habilis
- Too derived for H. rudolfensis Too generalized for H. erectus
- Thin skull bones
- Thick skull bones
- 1.5 Ma
- Age at death: 8-11 yrs old
Who is Homo erectus?
- African from 1.8 Ma
- First hominin to out of Africa
- Arrives in Asia ca. 1.8 Ma (?)
- tropical and temperate climates
Java Sites ?
- DuBois worked 1890-1900
- sites: Trinil (Solo River)
- brain case, mandible, limb bones
- Von Koenigswald worked 1936-1941
- sites: Modjokerto & Sangiran
- Several new species, now all H. erectus
Java Sites ?
- Excavated 1930s
- 30,000 50,000 years old (recent redating 173,000- 500,000 BP)
Pithecanthropus erectus: Dubois 1894 ?
- Haeckels (1865) Pithecanthropus alalus Java (Indonesia)
- Sinanthropus pekinensis
- Davidson Black & Franz Weidenreich
- 1920s & 30s -- material lost during WWII
- Zhoukoudian ca. 0.7 - 0. 4 Ma
- other sites ca. 1 Ma
- Sunk into Homo erectus
Zhoukoudian Main Cave artifacts ?
- Oldowan Chopper Acheulian Biface or Handaxe
- Pithecanthropus Meganthropus
- Brain size ~ 750 cc
- Small body size 1.7MA
- ergaster - like
What is Homo erectus up to?
- Brain size is increasing
- They are getting big
- They are expanding into new (colder) habitats
- Obvious selective benefit
- Capture preceded starting
- Earliest good evidence 1 Ma (South Africa, H. ergaster)
Expensive Tissue Hypothesis?
- Better Tools
- More Complex Foraging
- Larger Brain
- Higher Quality Diet
- More Energy For
- Smaller Guts
- Less Time Digesting