ANT Lecture 24.txt

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ANT Lecture 24.txt
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Lecture 24
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  1. Bioarchaeology Goals?
    • To reconstruct past human populations
    • * Not fossils, not species origins (paleoanthropology, paleontology)
    • * Culture
  2. Forensic anthropology Goals?
    • To create a profile for identification in a medico-legal setting
    • * Events surrounding death
  3. Bioarchaeology?
    • Study of human populations from archaeological sites
    • * context informs skeletal biology
    • * bones, plants
    • * artifacts
    • * ethnographic data (if available)
    • Reconstruction of history
  4. Ale? Hrdli?ka Smithsonian?
    • * 1903-1943: Smithsonian skeletal collection grew from 3000 to 15000!
    • * collaboration with archaeologists; excavations
    • * Importance of documentation (context)
  5. The New Deal: 1933-1942?
    • * skeletal collections grew
    • * improved arch methods, increased federal funding, increased cultural awareness
    • * Descriptive work
  6. Shift in Focus?
    • Descriptive
    • listing/categorizing
    • racial typology
    • to
    • Problem-oriented research
    • processes
    • underlying reasons
  7. Big questions?
    • Quality of life
    • * growth & development
    • * diet & nutrition
    • * disease (paleopathology)
    • Behavior & lifestyle
    • * activities
    • Population history
    • * group relatedness
    • * migrations
    • Interconnected issues!
  8. Growth & development?
    • * How fast were individuals growing? Trends?
    • * Environmental influences? Stressors?
  9. Diet and nutrition?
    • * mode of subsistence; ecology
    • * Influence on growth and health
  10. Pathology?
    dental caries lesions
  11. enamel hypoplasia?
    • a defect of theteethin which theenamelis hard but thin and deficient in amount.
    • Usually the condition involves part of the tooth having a pit in it
  12. porotic hyperostosis?
    apathologicalcondition that affects bones of thecranial vault, and is characterized by localized areas of spongy or porousbonetissue.
  13. rickets?
    a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.
  14. Behavior & lifestyle?
    • * Biomechanics: study of form and function using mechanical principles
    • * Bone responds to force from physical activity
    • o bone form(geometry) leads to infer activity
    • * Other influences
    • * subsistence
    • * climate
    • * sex
  15. Population history?
    • Polygenic traits (what forensic anthropologists use)
    • * certain traits found in high proportion in certain populations
    • o imply shared ancestry
    • Genetic distances
    • Isotopes: Strontium(Sr)
    • * geographical variation in isotope composition
    • * place of origin
  16. Repatriation?
    • 1970s Native American activism
    • NAGPRA: Native American Graves Protection & Repatriation Act of 1990
    • * all remains and artifacts with cultural affiliation must be returned upon request to the affiliated group
  17. Forensic Anthropology?
    • * Analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths (anthropology in a medicolegal context)
    • * medicolegal: within the last 50 years
    • * cases of historical interest
  18. Relationship with military?
    Consolidated during WW2 with the need to identify remains of soldiers
  19. SKELETAL PROFILE?
    • * Is it human?
    • * Are the remains recent?
    • * Minimum number of individuals (MNI)
    • * Ancestry
    • * Sex
    • * Age
    • * Pathologies, Trauma
    • * Idiosyncrasies that may help establish identity
  20. Ancestry?
    • Non-metric method
    • FORDISC program
    • * likelihood of affiliation
    • * depends on reference populations used
    • * forces the unknown individual into a group
  21. SEX: ITS 50/50?
    • Size sexual dimorphism
    • Be wary of population history!
    • Dimorphism related to childbirth: more reliable
  22. AGE: SUBADULTS?
    • Based on growth patterns, timing of events
    • Dental eruption sequence: genetically controlled
  23. AGE: ADULTS?
    • Based on degenerative change: Its all downhill from here!
    • Less reliable due to more factors affecting degree and rate of degeneration
    • * larger estimated age range
  24. TRAUMA?
    • Sharp force
    • Blunt force- force over wide area
    • Projectile force
    • Fire- changes in color, chemical composition, size, shape
  25. MASS FATALITIES?
    • 9/11/2001
    • * 2,996 fatalities
    • 2004 tsunami
    • * 230,000 fatalities

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