ANT Lecture 25.txt

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ANT Lecture 25.txt
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Lecture 25
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  1. Evolution and Disease?
    • Biocultural Approach
    • * Cultural actors influence patterns of human illness
    • * Examples:
    • o anorexia nervosa
    • o kuru
  2. Anorexia nervosa?
    • * Western culture-bound syndrome?
    • o Is thinness the objective? Asceticism of the body?
    • * Historical cases prior to recognition
    • o no good evidence for increase in incidence non-Western cases lack concern over weight
    • * Weight concerns culture-bound
  3. Kuru?
    • * High incidence among Fore people
    • o laughing sickness, body tremors
    • * Progressive wasting
    • * Prion disease
    • * Spread by cannibalism
    • * Allelic variant confers resistance
  4. Evolution and Disease?
    • Evolutionary Approach
    • * Symptoms: defects or defenses?
    • o Pathogen:Host arms races
    • * Environmental mismatch
    • o Pleiotropy (e.g. Alzheimers)
    • * Design compromise (e.g., knees, backs)
  5. Triumph of Culture? Agriculture and Domestication?
    • Mass production
    • Urbanization
    • Specialization
    • Cultural Innovation
    • Disease
    • Malnutrition
  6. Rise of Agriculture (Cost of Civilization)?
    • * Reliable supply of calorie-rich nutritionally poor foods
    • * Excellent environment for spread of disease
  7. Population Growth?
    • * 7 billion and growing
    • * 1st spike: Stone Tools
    • * 2nd spike: A & D
    • * 3rd spike: Industrialization
    • * Pandemics
    • * Famine
    • * Policy
    • * Economics
    • *
    • Epidemiological Transitions?
    • 1. ? Ecology/demography
    • 2. Agriculture
    • 3. Germ theory: hygiene, antibiotics, vaccination
    • 4. ? Gene therapy
  8. Life History Patterns?
    • * 1st menstrual period
    • * OBVIOUS FACTORS: better nutrition, less disease
    • * POTENTIAL FACTORS: parental longevity (general quality of care), heterosis, ban on child labor
  9. Life History Patterns?
    • Life expectancy: increasing over time
    • Fertility rate: decreasing over time
  10. Comparative Life Histories: Heterochrony?
    defined as a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape
  11. Menopause: An Evolutionary Enigma?
    • 1. Cessation of reproductive capacity (~ age 50)
    • 2. End result of programmed cell death (atresia)
    • 3. Artifact or Adaptation?
    • Byproduct of changing life history
    • Grandmother hypothesis
    • Very Attentive Mother hypothesis

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