ANT Lecture 24.txt
Card Set Information
ANT Lecture 24.txt
To reconstruct past human populations
* Not fossils, not species origins (paleoanthropology, paleontology)
Forensic anthropology Goals?
To create a profile for identification in a medico-legal setting
* Events surrounding death
Study of human populations from archaeological sites
* context informs skeletal biology
* bones, plants
* ethnographic data (if available)
Reconstruction of history
Ale? Hrdli?ka Smithsonian?
: Smithsonian skeletal collection grew from 3000 to 15000!
* collaboration with archaeologists; excavations
* Importance of documentation (context)
The New Deal: 1933-1942?
* skeletal collections grew
* improved arch methods, increased federal funding, increased cultural awareness
* Descriptive work
Shift in Focus?
Quality of life
* growth & development
* diet & nutrition
* disease (paleopathology)
Behavior & lifestyle
* group relatedness
Growth & development?
* How fast were individuals growing? Trends?
* Environmental influences? Stressors?
Diet and nutrition?
* mode of subsistence; ecology
* Influence on growth and health
dental caries lesions
a defect of theteethin which theenamelis hard but thin and deficient in amount.
Usually the condition involves part of the tooth having a pit in it
apathologicalcondition that affects bones of thecranial vault, and is characterized by localized areas of spongy or porousbonetissue.
a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.
Behavior & lifestyle?
: study of form and function using mechanical principles
* Bone responds to force from physical activity
o bone form(geometry) leads to infer activity
* Other influences
Polygenic traits (what forensic anthropologists use)
* certain traits found in high proportion in certain populations
o imply shared ancestry
* geographical variation in isotope composition
* place of origin
1970s Native American activism
: Native American Graves Protection & Repatriation Act of 1990
* all remains and artifacts with cultural affiliation must be returned upon request to the affiliated group
* Analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths (anthropology in a medicolegal context)
: within the last 50 years
* cases of historical interest
Relationship with military?
Consolidated during WW2 with the need to identify remains of soldiers
* Is it human?
* Are the remains recent?
* Minimum number of individuals (MNI)
* Pathologies, Trauma
* Idiosyncrasies that may help establish identity
* likelihood of affiliation
* depends on reference populations used
* forces the unknown individual into a group
SEX: ITS 50/50?
Size sexual dimorphism
Be wary of population history!
Dimorphism related to childbirth
: more reliable
Based on growth patterns, timing of events
Dental eruption sequence
: genetically controlled
Based on degenerative change
: Its all downhill from here!
Less reliable due to more factors affecting degree and rate of degeneration
* larger estimated age range
Blunt force- force over wide area
Fire- changes in color, chemical composition, size, shape
* 2,996 fatalities
* 230,000 fatalities