General Science Vocab.txt

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AVSG
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271277
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General Science Vocab.txt
Updated:
2014-04-20 21:16:09
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ACT SAT vocab
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science
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this was stuff by Vera she is wonderful. we finally found out how to upload it. if you are an individual using/benefiting from this card set remember to thank her in your heart of hearts of your soul and entire being. enjoy
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    • author "Vera"
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    • fileName "General Science Vocab"
    • absorption
    • process by which end products of digestion move from the small intestine into the blood.
  1. acid
    a compound that dissociates in water to form hydrogen ions.
  2. active transport
    energy-requiring process that moves materials through a cell membrane.
  3. adaptation
    a characteristic of an organism that enables it to survive.
  4. aerobic respiration
    an energy releasing proces of cells that require oxygen.
  5. allergen
    a foreign substance that causes an allergic reaction.
  6. allergy
    overreaction of the immune system to a foreign substance
  7. amino acid
    the organic building unit of polypeptides and proteins
  8. anaerobic respiration
    an energy releasing process that don't require oxygen
  9. antibiotic
    a substance produced by certain organisms that prevents the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
  10. antibody
    a substance produced by the body that counteracts an antigen
  11. aorta
    the largest artery of the body, carries oxygenated blood ftom the left ventricle of the heart to most body organs
  12. atom
    an atom has a nucleus that contains neutrons and protons, electrons move around the nucleus
  13. atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
  14. autonomic nervous system
    the branch of the nervous system that regulates certain internal responses
  15. base
    a compound that forms a salt and water following reaction with an acid
  16. biome
    a large climate region compromised of a group of ecosystems
  17. calorie
    the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celcius
  18. carbohydrate
    an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. includes sugars, starches, glycogen, and cellulose
  19. catalyst
    a substance that changes (usually speeds up) the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being permanently changed
  20. cell membrane
    the living outer layer of a cell through which substances pass into and out of the cell, also called the plasma membrane.
  21. cellular respiration
    the reactions within a cell that release and store energy
  22. cerebellum
    the part of the human brain located behind and below the cerebrum that controls muscular coordination.
  23. cerebrum
    largest part of the human brain. it is involved in sensation, memory, voluntary action, and intelligence.
  24. chemical bond
    the force of attraction that holds atoms together and stores chemical energy.
  25. chemical reaction
    any processes that result in the production of different substances with new properties.
  26. chlorophyll
    a complex green pigment that captures light energy for use in photosynthesis.
  27. chromosome
    a structure composed primarily of DNA that contains the genes
  28. commensalism
    a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not harmed
  29. compound
    two or more elements combined chemically in definite proportions by weight
  30. cytoplasm
    most of the cellular material located between the nucleus and the cell membrane
  31. dendrite
    an extension of the cell body of a nerve cell that forms a synapse with an adjoining nerve cell
  32. density
    mass per unit of volume
  33. differentiation
    the transformation of embryotic cells into the specialized cells of different tissues
  34. diffusion
    the movement of molecules from a region of greater concetration to a region of lesser concentration
  35. digestion
    a chemical process that changes complex food molecules to simple food molecules
  36. diploid number
    the normal, or species, number of chromosomes characteristic of the body cells of an organism, it is usually designated as 2n
  37. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
    the hereditary material in cells
  38. dominant trait
    a hereditary trait that shows itself when its form of its gene is present
  39. ecology
    the study of the relationships between the organisms and their environment
  40. element
    a substance that cannot be chemically changed into a simpler substance. all atoms of an element have the same number of protons.
  41. embryo
    an organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation
  42. enzyme
    an organic catalyst that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, thus speeding up the reaction
  43. eukaryote
    any cell or organism that has a membrane enclosing its genetic material
  44. evolution
    change over time
  45. excretion
    the removal of metabolic wastes from cells and from body fluids
  46. fission
    division of a parent cell into two or more daughter cells.
  47. fungus/fungi
    an organism, sometimes parasitic, often saprophytic-living off the nutrients in dead organisms; examples are molds, mildews, and mushrooms
  48. gas
    a substance that takes the shape and fills the volume of its container.
  49. gene
    the portion of a chromosome that carries the genetic information for a specific trait.
  50. half-life
    the time required for half the atoms in a radioactive specimen to change to stable end products.
  51. histamine
    a chemical compound formed by cells in response to certain antigens; produces allergy symptoms
  52. homeostasis
    the tendency of a living system (organism) to maintain the stability of its internal environment
  53. hydrolysis
    a reaction in which a large complex molecule reacts with water to form two simpler molecules
  54. immunity
    the ability of the body to combat disease-causing organisms
  55. imprinting
    a behavior pattern exhibited by certain animals in response to a.stimulus received early in life.
  56. inorganic
    relating to substances that were never alive; relating to compounds that lack carbon and hydrogen
  57. invertebrate
    an animal without a backbone
  58. kinetic energy
    the energy of motion
  59. lipid
    any fat or oil; a fat soluble organic compound composed of fatty acid molecules and glycerol molecules
  60. liquid
    a substance that takes the shape of the vessel that contains it but doesn't necessarily fill its volume.
  61. lymph nodes (lymph glands)
    small structures located along the lymph vessels that help protect the body by producing some white blood cells and filtering out bacteria
  62. malleable
    the ability of a metal to have its shape permanently changed by applying force
  63. marsupial
    a pouched mammal
  64. mass
    the measure of the amont of matter in an object; the mass of an object remains the same regardless of the force of gravity.
  65. meiosis
    a cell division process that reduces the diploid number (2n) of chromosomes to the haploid, or monoploid, or number n.
  66. metabolism
    the sum of the building up and tearing down reactions that occur in cells
  67. mitosis
    the cell division processes that duplicates nuclear material (chromosomes) and distributes the material equally between daughter cells.
  68. molecule
    the smallest unit of an element or a compound, two or more atoms covalently bonded.
  69. Newton's First Law of Motion
    a body will stay in its present state of rest or motion until acted upon by an outside force.
  70. Newton's Second Law of Motion
    the change in acceleration of a body proportional to the force applied
  71. Newton's Third Law of Motion
    for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  72. nucleic acids
    DNA and RNA (composed of nucleotides); they both control heredity and protein synthesis.
  73. What is a lactose?
    a carbohydrate
  74. What are two types of simple carbohydrates?
    monosaccharides and disaccharides
  75. nucleus
    the cell organelle that controls the cell's activities and contains DNA.
  76. nutrients
    molecules that provide energy and or raw materials for growth such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, water, and vitamins.
  77. organ
    several tissues that work together to perform a function
  78. organic
    relating to compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
  79. osmosis
    the movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a region of greater concentration to a region of lesser concentration
  80. ovary
    the egg-producing female reproductive of plants or animals
  81. ovule
    a reproductive structure in seed plants; after fertilization the ovule develops into a seed
  82. oxidation
    the chemical union of oxygen with a substance; a loss of electrons
  83. parasitism
    a symbiotic relationship in which one organism (the parasite) benefits and the other (the host) is harmed.
  84. pepsin
    a protein-splitting enzyme in gastric juice
  85. periodic event
    an event that occurs at regular time intervals
  86. permeability
    the extent to which a membrane allows different molecules to pass through it
  87. pH
    a measure of the acidity of a solution; a pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic
  88. phagocyte
    a white blood cell that engulfs and ingests foreign matter
  89. phloem
    tissue in plants that conducts food.
  90. photosynthesis
    the process in which energy is used to form carbohydrate and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
  91. plasma
    the liquid portion of blood; contains water and dissolved materials
  92. progesterone
    a hormone that builds up the lining of the uterus and stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the uterus.
  93. prokaryote
    any cell that lacks a membrane enclosing its genetic material
  94. protein
    a complex organic molecule composed of a chain of amino acids
  95. radioactive
    refers to elements that emits particles and radiation during the spontaneous disintegration of their nuclei
  96. recessive trait
    a hereditary trait that doesn't appear in an individual if the dominant form of the gene is present
  97. reflection
    occurs when light bounces off a surface; when light is reflected from a flat mirror, the angle of incidence (light striking a mirror) equals the angle of reflection (light leaving the mirror)
  98. reproduction
    the life activity by which organisms produce offspring
  99. respiration (cellular)
    the process in which carbohydrates react with oxygen which releases energy and produces water and carbon dioxide.
  100. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    a single chain of nucleotides patterned foreignrom a DNA template
  101. seed
    a ripened.ovule; contains an embryo plant and stored food
  102. semicircular canals
    structures located in each inner ear that detect changes in body movement and help to maintain balance
  103. solid
    matter that has a definite shape and volume
  104. solution
    a homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another
  105. solvent
    a substance in.which.a solute dissolves to form a solution
  106. spore
    an asexual cell that can.withstand unfavorable conditions and is capable of producing a new organism
  107. stamen
    the male reproductive organ of a flower; consists of the filament and the anther which produces pollen grains
  108. stimulus
    any change in an organism's internal or external environment
  109. symbiosis
    a permanent relationship between two different organisms living together; one organism lives neither on, in, or near the other
  110. synapse
    the space between the end brush of one neuron and the cell body of another neuron across which a nerve impluse (signal) passes.
  111. systemic circulation
    the circulation of blood through all parts of.the body except the lungs
  112. taiga
    the land.biome south.of.the tundra which is characterized by coniferous forests
  113. thorax
    in insects, the region of the body between the head and abdomen, in humans, the chest region.
  114. tissue
    a group of similar.cells that carry out to a specialized activity.
  115. tropism
    an autimatic response of a plant or part of a plant to an environmental stimulus such as sunlight or gravity.
  116. tundra
    the land biome located north of the taiga biome, which is characterized by permanently frozen subsoil.
  117. umbilical cord
    a structure in mammals that connects a fetus with a placenta.
  118. uterus
    a muscular organ in female mammals in which an emryo develops.
  119. vertebra
    one of the bones of the.spinal column
  120. vertebrate
    an animal with a backbone
  121. virus
    an infectious particle showing some of characteristics of life that survives only as a parasite in a host cell.
  122. viscous
    describes a material flows slowly
  123. vitamin
    an organic nutrient that usually can't manufactured by the body; most function to assist enzymes
  124. water cycle
    the movement of water from the atmosphere to the ground, through organisms, and back to the atmosphere
  125. weight
    the measure of the gravitational force that.attracts an object; the weight of an object changes as the force of gravity changes
  126. xylem
    water-conducting tissues in plants
  127. yolk
    stored food material in an.egg cell
  128. zygote
    a fertilized egg cell

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