Ch 18 Blood 4

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Ch 18 Blood 4
2014-04-20 22:32:07
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  1. Erythrocyte Death and Disposal:

    Macrophages in spleen have these two functions?
    • –Digest membrane bits
    • –Separate heme from globin
  2. Erythrocyte Death and Disposal:

    When macrophages in spleen separate hem from globin; Globins are hydolyzerd into?
    amino acids
  3. Erythrocyte Death and Disposal:

    When macrophages in spleen separate heme from globin. Iron is removed from heme; what are the what are four things that happen in this process?
    • –Heme pigment converted to biliverdin (green)
    • –Biliverdin converted to bilirubin (yellow)
    • –Released into blood plasma (kidneys-yellow urine)
    • –Liver removes bilirubin and secretes into bile
    •       -Concentrated in gallbladder: released into small intestine; bacteria create urobilinogen (brown feces)
  4. Erythrocyte Disorders:

    •Cancer of erythropoietic cell line in red bone marrow
     –RBC count as high as 11 million RBCs/mL;
    hematocrit 80%
    Primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera)
  5. Erythrocyte Disorders:

    •From dehydration, emphysema, high altitude, or physical conditioning
        –RBC count up to 8 million RBCs/mL
    Secondary polycythemia
  6. Erythrocyte Disorders:

    What are the dangers of polycythemia
    • –Increased blood volume, pressure, viscosity
    •    •Can lead to embolism, stroke, or heart failure
  7. What are the three categories for the causes of Anemia?
    • –Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
    • –Hemorrhagic anemias 
    • –Hemolytic anemias
  8. Anemia:
    Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis is caused by?
    • •Kidney failure and insufficient erythropoietin
    • •Iron-deficiency anemia
    • •Inadequate vitamin B12 from poor nutrition or lack of intrinsic factor (pernicious anemia)
    • •Hypoplastic anemia—slowing
    • of erythropoiesis
    • •Aplastic anemia—complete cessation of erythropoiesis
  9. Hemorrhagic anemias is from?
  10. Hemolytic anemias is from
    RBC destruction
  11. –Complex molecules on surface of cell membrane that are unique to the individual
    •Used to distinguish self from foreign matter
    •Foreign antigens generate an immune response
    •Agglutinogens—______ on the surface of the RBC that is the basis for blood typing
  12. –Proteins (gamma globulins) secreted by plasma cells
    •Part of immune response to foreign matter
    •Bind to antigens and mark them for destruction
    •Forms antigen–antibody
  13. –Antibody molecule binding to antigens
    –Causes clumping of red blood cells
  14. —increased numbers in bacterial infections
         –Phagocytosis of bacteria
         –Release antimicrobial chemicals
    Neutrophils (granulocyte)
  15. —increased numbers in parasitic infections, collagen diseases, allergies, diseases of spleen and CNS
       –Phagocytosis of antigen–antibody complexes,
    allergens, and inflammatory chemicals
       –Release enzymes to destroy large parasites
    Eosinophils (granulocyte)
  16. —increased numbers in chickenpox, sinusitis, diabetes
        –Secrete histamine (vasodilator): speeds flow of blood to an injured area
        –Secrete heparin (anticoagulant): promotes the mobility of other WBCs in the area
    Basophils (granulocyte)
  17. —increased numbers in diverse infections and immune responses
        –Destroy cells (cancer, foreign, and virally infected cells)
        –“Present” antigens to activate other immune        cells
        –Coordinate actions of other immune cells
        –Secrete antibodies and provide immune             memory
    Lymphocytes (agranulocytes)
  18. —increased numbers in viral infections and
        –Leave bloodstream and transform into               macrophages
           •Phagocytize pathogens and debris
           •“Present” antigens to activate other                     immune cells—antigen-presenting cells              (APCs)
    Monocytes (agranulocyte)
  19. •production of white blood cells
  20. Myeloblasts form?
    •neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils