PHRD5925 Pharmaceutics Lectures 14 & 15 - Ocular Drug Delivery; Nano Delivery

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daynuhmay
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271307
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PHRD5925 Pharmaceutics Lectures 14 & 15 - Ocular Drug Delivery; Nano Delivery
Updated:
2014-04-21 03:36:32
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Ocular Drug Delivery nano
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Ocular Drug Delivery; Nano
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  1. 2 reasons pharmacokinetic properties of the eye differ from other organs
    • 1) anatomical isolation
    • 2) secluded access from the systemic circulation (blood-retinal barrier, blood-aqueous barrier)
  2. intraocular availablity of topical drugs
    <10%, typically ~2-5% (less for hydrophilic drugs)
  3. how much peak concentrations decline by with each barrier
    ~100-fold
  4. why the corneal structure is difficult to penetrate
    • epithelium is hydrophobic
    • stroma is hydrophilic
    • endothelium is hydrophobic
    • there are no blood vessels
  5. how to achieve penetration of the cornea
    use drug solutions that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties 

    (eg: prednisolone sodium phosphate)
  6. purpose of increasing surfactant
    to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs
  7. purpose of nonionized drugs
    increase epithelial absorption
  8. purpose of ionized drugs
    increase stromal absorption
  9. range of tonicity eye can withstand
    0.6-2%
  10. pH of the eye
    7.4
  11. 2 chemicals that increase viscosity
    • 1) methycellulose
    • 2) polyvinyl pyrrolidone
  12. most common ophthalmic dosage form
    solution
  13. how quickly ophthalmic solutions wash out from the eye
    5 minutes
  14. example of when an ophthalmic ointment is the preferred choice
    when it has to get through the cornea - lipophilic drugs are more likely to penetrate
  15. which ophthalmic formulation can't be heat sterilized?
    ointments
  16. formulation that uses diffusion of medication following erosion of soluble polymers
    ophthalmic gel
  17. size range of nanoparticles
    10-102 nm (antibody - virus)
  18. key advantage of nanoparticles in tumor tissue
    EPR (enhanced permeation & retention) due to poorly developed lymphatic tissue
  19. increased particle size = ____ settling velocity
    increased
  20. Brownian (Random) movement of particles 

    increased particle size = _____ Brownian displacement
    decreased

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