Vocab Words and Phrases

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Vocab Words and Phrases
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  1. "10 Percent" Plan
    Lincoln's proposal to readmit states to union once 10% of its voters pledged loyalty.
  2. Acadians
    French residents of Nova Scotia,  uprooted by the British in 1755 sent far south as Louisiana descendants = Cajuns
  3. Battle of Acoma
    Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate vs. Pueblo Indians in present day New Mexico. Spaniards won and est. territory as New Mexico
  4. Act of Tolerance
    Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those who denied of Jesus. Kept Catholics coming to Maryland in Colonial era
  5. Admiralty courts
    Used to try violations of Navigation Acts passed by the Crown post French-Indian war. Argued courts encroached on their rights as Englishmen since they lacked juries and placed the burden of proof on the accused.
  6. The Age of Reason
    T. Paine's anticlerical treatise that accused churches of seeking to acquire "Power and Profit" and to "enslave mankind"
  7. Alabama
    British-built/manned Confederate warship, raided Union shipping during the Civil War. One of many built by the British for the Confederacy, despite Union protests
  8. Alamo
    • Fortress in Texas, 400 American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836.
    • “Remember the Alamo” became a battle cry in support of Texan independence
  9. Albany Congress
    Intercolonial congress summoned by British gov for greater colonial unity/Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French
  10. Alien Laws
    Acts passed by Fed Congress to raise residency requirement for citizenship to 14 years/granting president power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace.
  11. American Anti-slavery Society
    • William Lloyd Garrison's, advocated the immediate abolition of slavery.
    • By 1838, the organization had more than 250,000 members across 1,350 chapters
  12. American Colonization Society
    Wanted to send freed blacks back to Africa, est. Liberia for that reason.
  13. The American Scholar
    Ralph Waldo Emerson's address at Harvard, declared intellectual independence from Euro/urged new American scholar traditions
  14. American System
    • Henry Clay’s 3-pronged system to promote
    • American industry: strong banking system, protective tariff, fed funded transportation
  15. American Temperance Society
    Founded Boston 1826, part of 19th cent alcohol consumption reformation
  16. Amistad
    Spanish slave ship seized off coast of Cuba by enslaved Africans
  17. Ancient Order of Hibernians
    Semisecret Irish society that helped Irish immigrants.
  18. Anglo-American Convention
    Brits/US signed pact, allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries. Est. N border of Louisiana territory, provided for joint occupation of Oregon Country for 10 years
  19. Battle of Antietam
    Civil war battle ended in draw, demonstrated Union army power/forshadowed foreign intervention/victory allowing Emancipation Proclamation
  20. Antifederalists
    Opponents of 1787 Constitution, cast it as antidemocratic/subordinated states control and encroached on individual liberties without bill of rights.
  21. Anti-Masonic party
    Founded in NY, influenced New England and midAtlantic in 1832 election against Masonic order and Andrew Jackson, supported by Proestants
  22. Antinomianism
    Anne Hutchinson's belief that elect don't need to obey law of God nor man
  23. Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
    David Walker (southern born free black)'s abolitionist track advocating violent overthrow of slavery
  24. Appomattox Courthouse
    Where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant April 1865 after almost a year of brutal fighting throughout Virginia in the Wilderness Campaign.
  25. Armed Neutrality
    Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia’s Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence
  26. Arminianism
    Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God’s grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election
  27. Aroostook War
    Clashes between American/Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed territory of N Maine, until 1842, with agreed border
  28. Articles of Confederation
    1st US constitution est. US as loose confederation of states under weak national Congress that couldn't regulate commerce, get taxes and replaced by Constitution in 1789
  29. The Association
    Non-importation agreement made by 1st Continental Congress to boycott British goods
  30. Assumption
    Transfer of debt from one party to another. To strengthen the union fed. gov. assumed states' Revolutionary War debts, tied wealthy lenders interests in with nat. gov.
  31. Awful Disclosures
    Maria Monk's sensational expose of alleged horrors in Catholic convents, reflected fear of Catholics
  32. Aztecs
    • Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés.
    • The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies
  33. Bacon's Rebellion
    Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley’s refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite
  34. Bank of the United States
    • Alexander Hamilton's financial program.
    • Bank printed paper money, served as Treasury depository
    • Opposed by Jeffersonian Republicans; claimed unconstitutional.
  35. Bank War
    • Pres. Jackson vs. Congressional supports for Bank o US over the bank's renewal in 1832.
    • Jackson vetoed Bank Bill bc favored money over W farmers
  36. Barbados slave code
    1st formal statute governing treatment of slaves, provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters.
  37. Bill of Rights
    1st 10amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Secured key rights for individuals/reserve to the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution
  38. Black belt
    Region of the Deep South with the highest concentration of slaves. The “Black belt” emerged in the 19th cent as cotton production became more profitable/slavery expanded S and W.
  39. Black Codes
    Laws passed in S restricting rights of emancipated blacks, esp. over labor. N criticized A. Jackson for his lenient Recon. policies.
  40. Black hawk War
    Clashes in Illinois/Wisconsin, US vs. Indian Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk and Fox tribes trying to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Indian Removal Act
  41. Black Legend
    False notion that Spanish conquerors only hurt Indians in the name of Christ
  42. Bleeding Kansas
    Civil war in Kansas over the issue of slavery in the territory, fought intermittently until 1861 when it merged with the wider national Civil War.
  43. Blue Laws
    AKA sumptuary laws to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality in colonies esp. Puritan New England/Quaker Pennsylvania
  44. Border States
    Five slave states (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and W Virginia) that didn't secede in Civil war.
  45. Boston Massacre
    Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed Brit redcoats who fired on the crowd, killing/wounding 11.
  46. Boston Tea Party
    Rowdy protest against Brit E India Company's new monopoly on tea trade, Colonists disguised as Indians dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor
  47. Breakers
    Slave drivers who employed the lash to brutally break the souls of strong willed slaves
  48. Brook Farm
    Transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals who to live plainly while pursing the life of the mind, fell into debt and dissolved when communal home burned down
  49. Battle of Buena Vista
    Key US victory against Mex forces in Mexican American war. Elevated General Z. Taylor's national prominence and helped secure his success in 1848 pres. election
  50. Buffer
    A territory between two antagonistic powers intended to minimize the possibility of conflict between them. Georgia was est. to buffer colony between Brit and Span territory.
  51. Battle of Bull Run
    1st major battle of the Civil War/ S victory, dispelled N illusions of swift victory
  52. Battle of Bunker Hill
    Outside of Boston, on breed's Hill, battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, at a heavy cost to British
  53. Burned-Over District
    W NY, region swept up in the religious fervor of the 2nd Great Awakening.
  54. Cahokia
    Mississippian settlement near present-day E St. Louis, home to ~25,000 Native Americans
  55. California Bear Flag Republic
    Short lived California republic est. by local American settlers who revolted against Mex. Once news of the war came they left for US.
  56. California Gold rush
    Tons of miners going to N California after news of gold at Sutter's Mill in January of 1848.
  57. Calvinism
    Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin. Predestination: that only the elect were destined for salvation"
  58. Canadian Shield
    1st part of the N American landmass to emerge above sea level
  59. Capitalism
    Economic system characterized by private property, free trade, and open and accessible markets. Euro colonization of the Americas and in particular the discovery of vast bullion deposits helped bring Euro transition to capitalism
  60. Caravel
    Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels  could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey
  61. Caroline
    Diplomatic row between US and Britain after Brit troops set fire to US steamer carrying supplies across Niagara River to Canadian insurgents during Canada's short lived insurrection
  62. Carpet baggers
    S described N businessmen/politicians who came to profit from Reconstruction.
  63. Charter
    Legal doc. granted by a gov. to some group or agency to implement a state purpose/spelling out rights/obligations. Brit colonial charters gave rights of Englishmen.
  64. Chesapeake affair
    Britain vs. US that precipitated the 1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia
  65. Civic virtue
    Willingness on the part of citizens to sacrifice personal self-interest for the public good. Deemed a necessary component of a successful republic
  66. Civil Rights Bill
    Over A. Jackson's veto, counteracted Black Codes by making it a crime to deprive blacks of their rights to sue, testify in court or hold property.
  67. Civilization
    Political society that traditionally combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity
  68. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    Signed by Brits/US, the 2 nations would protect the neutrality of Central America and not seek to fortify or control any future isthmian waterway. Revoked by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which gave the US control of the Panama Canal
  69. Clipper ships
    Small, swift vessels that gave US the advantage in the carrying trade. Clipper ships were made obsolete by the advent of sturdier, roomier iron steamers on the eve of the Civil War.
  70. Cohens v Virginia
    Reinforced federal supremacy by est. the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the fed. gov.
  71. Committees of correspondence
    Local committees est. across Massachusetts, and later in each of the 13 colonies, to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets
  72. Common Law
    Laws originating from court rulings/customs, as opposed to legislative statutes. US Constitution grew out of the Anglo-American common law tradition and thus provided only a general organizational framework for the new fed gov.
  73. Commonwealth v. Hunt
    Massachusetts Supreme court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions
  74. Common Sense
    T. Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and est. a republican gov.
  75. Compromise of 1850
    California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade (not slavery) in Washington D.C., and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the N and S, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery
  76. Compromise Tariff of 1833
    A measure to resolve the nullification crisis, provided that tariffs be lowered gradually over a period of 10 years to 1816 levels.
  77. Confederate States of America
    Gov. est. after seven Southern states seceded from union, later joined by four more.
  78. Congregational Church
    Self-governing Puritan congregations without the hierarchical est. of the Anglican Church
  79. Congress of Vienna
    Convention of major Euro powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Euro after the defeat of Napoleonic France
  80. Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
    Est. by congress in Civil War to oversee military affairs. Largely under the control of Radical Republicans, the committee agitated for a more vigorous war effort and actively pressed Lincoln on the issue of emancipation
  81. Conquistadores
    16th cent Spaniards who fanned out across Americas from Colorado to Argentina eventually conquering Aztec and Incan empires.
  82. Conscience Whigs
    N Whigs opposed slavery on moral grounds. Wanted to prevent annexing Texas as a slave state, fearing it would help S slave power
  83. Constitutional Union party
    Formed by moderate Whigs and Know-Nothings in an effort to elect a compromise candidate and avert a sectional crisis
  84. Convention of 1800
    Agreement formally dissolving US treaty with France originally signed in the Revolutionary War.
  85. Conversion
    Intense religious experience that confirmed an individual's place among the elect or the visible saints. Calvinists who experienced conversion were then expected to lead sanctified lives to demonstrate their salvations.
  86. Copperheads
    N Democrats who obstructed the war effort attacking Lincoln, the draft and after 1863 emancipation.
  87. Corps of discovery
    Team of adventurers, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory and find a water route to the Pacific. Louis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West’s flora, fauna and native populations, and their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the west
  88. Corrupt Bargain
    Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams’ favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824.
  89. Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney's invention that sped up the harvesting of cotton.
  90. Coureurs de bois
    "runners of the woods" French fur trappers, est. trading posts in N America. Ruined health/folkways of Natives
  91. Creole
    US Ships captured by a group of rebelling Virginia slaves. Successfully got asylum in the Bahamas raising fear among S planters that Brit W Indies would be a safe havan
  92. Crittenden amendments
    Proposed in an attempt to appease the S, failed Constitutional amendments would have given Fed protection for slavery in all territories S of the 36' 30°
  93. Cult of domesticity
    Pervasive 19th cent cultural creed, venerated domestic role of women.
  94. Dartmouth College v. Woodward
    Sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, protecting corporations from domination by state gov.
  95. Daughters of Liberty
    Patriotic groups playing central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements
  96. Declaration of the Rights of Man
    Adopted in the French Revolution, modeled after American Declaration of Independence
  97. Declaratory Act
    Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed Parliament’s unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.
  98. Deism
    18th cent religious doctrine, emphasized reasoned moral behavior/scientific pursuit, rejected bible/Christ but thought of higher powers
  99. Disestablished
    • To separate an official state church from its
    • connection with the government. Following the Revolution, all states disestablished the Anglican Church, some New England states maintained est. Congregational Churches well into the 19th century
  100. Dominion of Canada
    Created by Brit to bolster Canadians against potential attacks from US
  101. Dominion of New England
    Administrative union by royal authority in all of New England, NY, and E/W Jersey. Rule of Sir Edmund Andros who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without consent and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control
  102. Dred Scott v Stanford
    Extended fed protection to slavery by ruling that congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory and declared slaves property
  103. Ecological imperialism
    • spoliation of Western natural resources through
    • excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing
  104. Edict of Nantes
    Issued by French crown, limited toleration to French Protestants. Ended religious wars in France, when it ended many went to America
  105. Emancipation Proclamation
    Declared slaves in rebelling states free but not in the non-rebelling Border States, closed door on potential compromise with S
  106. Embargo Act
    Response to Brit/Fran. mistreatment of US, banned export of goods from US and strained US econ.
  107. Encomienda
    Spanish gov's polict to "commend" or "give" Indians to certain colonists to Christianize them.
  108. English Civil War
    Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, Parliament forces won and executed Charles I
  109. Era of Good Feelings
    Period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe’s presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank
  110. Erie Canal
    NY State canal that linked Lake Erie to Hudson River. Lowered shipping costs fueling an econ. boom in upstate NY and increased profitability of farming in old NW
  111. Ex Parte Milligan
    Civil War Era case, ruled that Military tribunals couldn't be used to try civilians if civil courts were open
  112. Excise Tax
    Tax on goods produced domestically highly controversial component of A Hamilton's financial program
  113. Battle of Fallen Timers
    Decisive battle with Miami confederacy and US army. Brits refused to shelter Indians who had to attain a peace settlement with US
  114. Farewell address
    • George Washington’s address at the end of his presidency, warning against “permanent alliances” with other nations.
    • Washington did not oppose all alliances, but believed that the young, fledgling nation should forge alliances only on a temporary basis, in extraordinary circumstances
  115. The Federalist
    Collection of essays written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton published during the ratification debate in NY to lay out Federalists' arguments in favor of the new Constitution
  116. Federalists
    Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, favored a strong national gov, believed checks and balances would safeguard people's liberties
  117. 54 40 or fight
    Mid 19th expansionists slogan, wanted to occupy Oregon territory jointly held by Brits and US
  118. 1st Anglo Powhatan War
    Clashes between powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia, English torched and pillaged Indians
  119. 1st Continental Congress
    Convention of delegates from twelve of the 13 colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts.
  120. Fletcher v Peck
    Est. firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the fed Constriction
  121. Florida Purchase Treaty
    Spain ceded Florida to the US in exchange abandoning claims to Texas
  122. Force Acts
    Passed after wave of KKK violence, banned clan membership, prohibited intimidation of blacks from voting/military authority able to back them.
  123. Force Bill
    Alongside the Compromise Tariff, authorized the president to use the military to collect fed. tariff duties
  124. Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
    Key victory for Union General Ulysses S. Grant, secured N's hold on Kentucky and paved the way for Grant's attacks deeper into Tennesse
  125. Treaty of Fort Stanwix
    Signed by US and pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans
  126. Fort Sumter
    S Carolina location where Confederates fired 1st shots of Civil War after Union forces attempted to provision the fort
  127. 14th Amendment
    Constitutional amendment that extended civil rights to freedom and kept states from retracting them without reason
  128. Battle of Fredericksburg
    Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines
  129. Free Soil Party
    Anti-slavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers.
  130. Freedman's Bureau
    Aid newly emacipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, edu. and legal support. Uneven achievements depending on quality of local admins.
  131. Freeport Doctrine
    Declared since slavery couldn't exist without laws to protect it territorial legislatures not the Supreme Court would have the final say over slavery. 1st argued by Stephen Douglass to respond to Lincoln's Freeport question
  132. Freeport Question
    Raised in the Lincoln-Douglass debates by Lincoln who asked if the court or the people should decide the future of slavery in territories.
  133. French and Indian War
    9 year war between British and French in N America. Resulted in expulsion of French from N America mainland and helped spark the Seven Years war in Europe.
  134. Fugitive Slave Law
    Part of Compromise of 1850, set high penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways, strengthened the antislavery cause in N
  135. Fundamental Orders
    Drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, doc was the 1st “modern constitution” est. a democratically controlled gov. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut’s colonial charter and later, its state constitution.
  136. Funding at Par
    Payment of debts like gov bonds at face value. 1790 A. Hamilton proposed fed gov pay Revolutionary debts in full to bolster nation's credit
  137. Gadsden Purchase
    • Acquired additional land from Mexico for $10
    • million to facilitate the construction of a S transcontinental railroad
  138. Gag Resolution
    • Prohibited debate or action on antislavery
    • appeals. Driven through the House by pro-slavery S, the gag resolution passed year for eight years, eventually overturned with the help of John Quincy Adams.
  139. Gettysburg Address
    Lincoln's speech delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg battlefield. Said war upheld in the name of liberty
  140. Battle of Gettysburg
    Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the N. Site of General George Pickett’s daring but doomed charge on the N lines
  141. Treaty of Ghent
    Ended war of 1812 in a virtual draw restoring prewar borders but not addressing any issues.
  142. Gibbons v Ogden
    Suit over whether NYS could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. Reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce
  143. Glorious of Bloodless Revolution
    Peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II replacing him with his daughter and Dutch born William III who accepted increase Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
  144. Goliad
    Texas outpost where US volunteers surrendered and were then massacred by Mexican forces in 1836, fueled US support for TX independence
  145. Great Awakening
    Religious revival in colonies. Emphasized direct, emotive spirituality, esp. by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield.
  146. Great Compromise
    Reconciled New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate.
  147. Great Migration
    Migration of 70,000 refugees from England to the North American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20,000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose—to est. a model Christian settlement in the new world.
  148. Greenbacks
    Paper currency from Union in the Civil War, inadequately supported by gold value fluctuated in value
  149. Treaty of Greenville
    Miami Confederacy agreed to cede territory in the Old NW to the position their sovereign status
  150. Treaty of Guadalupe
    Ended war with Mexico who agreed to cede territory reaching NW from Texas to Oregon in exchange for 18.25 million in cash and assumed debts
  151. Half-way Covenant
    Allowed unconverted kids of church members to baptized their children, signified waning of religious zeal with 2nd and 3rd generation Puritans
  152. Harpers Ferry
    Federal arsenal in Virginia seized by abolitionist John Brown in 1859. Though Brown was later captured and executed, his raid alarmed S who believed that N shared in Brown’s extremism.
  153. Hartford convention
    Convention of Federalists from 5 New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented strength of S and W interests in Congress and in the White House
  154. Headright System
    Employed in the tobacco colonies to encourage indentured servants, the system let an individual to get 50 acres of land if he paid for a laborer’s passage to the colony
  155. Hessians
    German troops hired from their princes by George III to aid in putting down the colonial insurrection, hardening the resolve of American colonies who resented the use of paid foreign fighters
  156. Homestead Act
    gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for 5 years/improved it, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to 100s of 1000s of W-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land
  157. Hudson river
    US artistic movement that produced romantic renditions of local landscapes
  158. Huguenots
    French Prostestant dissenters, granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes. In 1685 when King Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism they fled to N America
  159. The Impending Crisis of the South
    Antislavery tract written by white S Hinton R. Helper arguing non-slave owning whites suffered most in a slave economy
  160. Impressment
    Forcibly drafting into military service from Brits against US in war against France.
  161. Incas
    Highly advanced S American civilization that occupied present day Peru, conquered by Spanish under Francisco Pizarro in 1532
  162. Indentured servants
    Migrants who traded years of service for transatlantic passage
  163. Indian Removal At
    Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly est. Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles
  164. Intolerable Acts
    Measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing port of Boston, revoking # of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, expanding Quartering Act to allow soldiers in private homes. Sparked 1st continental congress and boycott of Brits
  165. Iroquois Confederacy
    • Bound together five tribes— the Mohawks, the
    • Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas—in the Mohawk Valley of
    • what is now New York State
  166. Jamestown
    1st permanent British settlement in N America founded by Virginia Company
  167. Jay's Treaty
    By Chief Justice John Jay in an effort to avoid war with Brits, included Brit. promise to evacuate outposts on US soil and pay damages for seized US vessels in exchange Jay bound the US to repay pre Revolution debts
  168. Jeremiad
    Fiery sermons lamenting the waning piety of parishioners, esp. in New England. Named after Jeremiah from Old Testament
  169. Joint stock Company
    Short term partnership with multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise/England's early colonies
  170. Judiciary Act of 1789
    Organized federal legal system est. the Supreme Court fed. district and circuit courts and the office of the attorney general
  171. Judiciary Act of 1801
    Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, created 16 new fed judgeships ensuring Federalist hold on the judiciary
  172. Treaty of Kanagawa
    Ended Japan's 200 year period of economic isolation, est. US consulate in Japan securing US coaling rights in Japan ports
  173. Kansas Nebraska Act
    Proposed that the issu of slavery be decided by pop. sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories, revoking 1820 Missouri Compromise. Thanks to Stephen Douglass
  174. King George's War
    N American theatre of Euro's war of Austrian Succession, pitted Brit colonists against French counterpart. The peace settlement didn't involve any territorial realignment, leading to conflict between New England settlers and the Brit gov.
  175. King Philip's War
    Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the W migration of New England settlers for several decades
  176. King William's war
    Fought between Fren trappers, Brit settlers and their respective Indian allies from 1689-1697.
  177. Know Nothing party
    Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics.
  178. Laird rams
    2 well-armed ironclad warships constructed for the Confederacy by Brit. firm. Brits. bought two ships to avoid war with US
  179. Land Act of 1820
    Fueled the settlement of the NW and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Prohibited purchase of fed. acreage on credit, eliminated a cause of the Panic of 1819
  180. Land Ordinance of 1785
    Provided for the sale of land in the Old NW and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the nation debt
  181. Lecompton Constitution
    Proposed Kansas constitution, ratification was rigged to guarantee slavery in the territory. Initially ratified by proslavery forces, it was later voted down when Congress required that the entire constitution be put up for a vote
  182. Leisler's Rebellion
    Armed conflict between aspiring merchants led by Jacob Leisler and ruling elite of NY. One of many uprisings that erupted across the colonies when wealthy colonists attempted to recreate Euro social structures in the New World
  183. Battle of Lexington and Concord
    1st battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston. The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston
  184. The Liberator
    Antislavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison who called for immediate emancipation of all slaves
  185. Liberia
    W African nation founded in 1822 as a haven for freed blacks, 15,00 of whom made their way back across the Atlantic by 1860s.
  186. Liberty party
    Antislavery party that ran candidates in the 1840 and 1844 elections before merging with the Free Soil party. Supporters of the Liberty party wanted eventual abolition of slavery, but in the short term to stop expansion of slavery into the territories/abolish the domestic slave trade.
  187. Limited liability
    Legal principle that protected individual investors from responsibility more than their individual share
  188. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    Debates with Lincoln and S. Douglass during the U.S. Senate race in Illinois. Douglass won the election but Lincoln got famous/became candidate for the 1860 Republican nomination.
  189. Battle of Long Island
    Over control of NY, Brits vs. overwhelmed colonial militias who lost control of it for the majority of the war.
  190. Loose Construction
    Legal doctrine: the fed. gov. can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutional responsibilities
  191. Louisiana Purchase
    Purchase of Louisiana from France, more than doubled US size.
  192. Loyalists
    US Colonists who opposed Revolution/maintained loyalty to Kind, sometimes referred to as Tories.
  193. Lyceum
    Public lecture hall that hosted speakers on topics from science to moral philosophy, part of a broader flourishing of higher edu. in the mid 19th cent.
  194. Macon's Bill No. 2
    Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Brit and Fran, the act stipulated that if either Brit or Fran repealed its trade restrictions, the US would reinstate the embargo against the nonrepealing nation. When Napoleon offered to lift his restrictions on Brit ports, the US was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer toward war
  195. Maine law of 1851
    Prohbited manufacture and sale of alcohol, 12 other followed suit but usually repealed within 10 years
  196. The Man Without a Country
    Edward Everett Hale's fictional account of a treasonous soldier's journeys in exile. Widely read in N, inspired greater devotion to Union
  197. Manifest destiny
    Belief that US was meant to spread
  198. Marbury v Madison
    Est. principle of "judicial review" that the Supreme court had the final say in "constitutionality"
  199. Market revolution
    18/19th cent transformation from a disaggregated subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network
  200. Mason-Dixon line
    Originally drawn by surveyors to resolve the boundaries between Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Virginia in the 1760s, it came to symbolize the North-South divide over slavery
  201. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    Est. by non-separating Puritans, soon grew to be the largest most influential New England colony
  202. Mayflower Compact
    Agreement to form a majoritarian gov. in Plymouth signed aboard the Mayflower, created a foundation for self-government in the colony
  203. McCormick reaper
    Mechanized harvest of grains, like wheat allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. Fueled est. of largescale commercial agriculture in midw
  204. McCullock v Maryland
    Supreme court case that strengthened fed. authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the US by est. that Maryland couldn't tax the bank
  205. Mercantilism
    Economic theory that closely linked a nation’s political and military power to its bullion reserves. Mercantilists generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as means to increase exports
  206. Merrimack and Moinor
    Confederate and union ironclads who signaled an end to wooden warships.
  207. Mestizos
    People of mixed Indian and Euro heritage notably in Mexico
  208. Middle passage
    Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. High mortality rates
  209. Middlemen
    Dealers in trading systems who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers.
  210. Midnight judges
    Fed. Justices appointed by John Adams in the last days of his pres. Their positions were revoked when the newly elected Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act
  211. Minstrel shows
    Variety shows performed by white actors in black face 1st popularized in the mid-19th cent
  212. Missouri Compromise
    Missouri=slave state, preserved N/S balance with free state maine and prohibiting slavery from Louisiana Purchase N of the 36° 30'
  213. Model Treaty
    Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats. Reflected US desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglement
  214. Molasses Act
    Tax on imported molasses passed by Parliament in an effort to get N American trade with French W Indies, proved largely ineffective due to widespread smuggling.
  215. Molly Maguires
    Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned sometimes violently against poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines
  216. Monroe Doctrine
    Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the Brit, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets
  217. Mormon
    Religious followers of Joseph Smith who founded a communal oligarchic religious order in the 1830s
  218. Morrill Tariff Act
    Increased duties back up to 1846 levels to raise revenue for the Civil War
  219. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
    Vivid autobiography of the escaped slave and renowned abolitionist Frederick Douglass
  220. Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Virginia slave revolt that resulted in 60 white deaths and fears with white S of further uprisings
  221. National Banking System
    Network of member banks that could issue currency against purchased gov. bonds. Made in civil war to est. stable national currency and war bond sales
  222. Navigation Laws
    Laws passed beginning in 1651 to regulate colonial shipping, provided only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and all goods destined for colonies would go through England 1st
  223. Neutrality Proclamation
    G. Washington's proclamation:
  224. New England Emigrant Aid Company
    Facilitated migration of free laborers to Kansas to prevent est. of slavery in the territory
  225. New Harmony
    Communal society, ~1000 members, est. in New Harmony Indiana by Robert Owen. Scholars to crooks, fell apart due to fighting and confusion in 2 years
  226. New Jersey Plan
    “Small-state plan” suggested at Philadelphia convention: equal representation by state, regardless of pop, in unicameral legislature. Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate the agenda under a proportional system
  227. New Lights
    Ministers who took part in the revivalist emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield in the Great Awakening.
  228. Battle of New Orleans
    Resounding victory of US forces against Brit., restored US confidence/nationalism, last battle of the War of 1812
  229. New York draft riots
    Uprising of mostly working class Irish Americans protesting the draft, esp. b/c rich could buy out
  230. New York slave revolt
    Uprising of ~2 dozen slaves, 9 white deaths and execution of 21 rioters
  231. Noche triste
    Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes/his forces in the Aztec capital Tenochilan killing 100s
  232. Nonimportation agreement
    Boycotts against brit goods in response to Stamp Act and later Townshend and Intolerable acts. Effective form of protest against Brit policies in colonies
  233. Non-intercourse Act
    Passed alongside repeal of Embargo Act, reopened trade with all but Brits and Fren. Stayed in place until Jefferson's policy of economic coercion.
  234. Northwest Ordinance
    Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories
  235. Nullification Crisis
    Pres. Andrew Jackson vs. S Carolina legislature who declared 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if fed gov tried to collect duties. Resolved by Henry Clay's compromise in 1833
  236. Old lights
    Orthodox clergymen who rejected the Great awakening for a more rational spirituality
  237. Old Northwest
    Territories gotten by the fed gov from states, land NW of Ohio river, E of the Mississippi, S of Great Lakes.
  238. Olive Branch Petition
    Concilitory measure from Continental Congress professing US loyalty and seeking end to hostilities. King George rejected it and said the colonies were rebelling
  239. Oneida Community
    • radical utopian community est. in the
    • 19th cent, it advocated “free love”, birth control, and eugenics. Utopian communities reflected the reformist spirit of the age
  240. Opium war
    Brits vs China over trading rights, esp. Brits selling opium to China. Resulting agreement made US seek similar concessions from China
  241. Orders in Council
    • Edicts issued by the Brit Crown closing
    • Fren-owned Euro ports to foreign shipping. The Fren responded with the seizure of vessels entering Brit ports, cutting off US merchants from trade with both
  242. Ostend manifesto
    Secret Franklin Pierce admin. proposal to buy/take Cuba from Spain, once leaked it was abandoned due to opposition from N
  243. Pacific Railroad Act
    Helped fund construction of Union pacific transcontinental railroad with the use of land grants/gov bonds
  244. Panic of 1819
    Severe financial crisis due to Bank of US trying to curb over-speculation on W lands, affected poor esp. in W the most, supporting Jacksonian Democracy
  245. Panic of 1837
    Econ. crisis from bank failures, high grain prices, and A. Jackson’s efforts to curb overspeculation on W lands and transportation improvements. In response, Pres. Martin Van Buren proposed the “Divorce Bill,”: pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply
  246. Panic of 1857
    Financial crash brought on by gold-fueled inflation, overspeculation, and excess grain production. Raised calls in the N for higher tariffs and for free homesteads on W public lands
  247. Treaty of Paris
    Peace treaty with Brits/US ending Revolutionary war. Brits recognized US independence /ceded territory E of Mississippi, US restored Loyalist property and Brit debts
  248. Patent Office
    Fed. gov. bureau to review patent apps: legal recognization of a new invention, granting exclusive rights to inventor for a while
  249. Patriots
    Pro revolution, also Whigs
  250. Patronage
    Rewarding political support with special favors, usually public office.
  251. Patroonship
    Vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing 50 settlers to the property
  252. Paxton Boys
    Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment’s lenient policies toward Native Americans
  253. Peculiar Institution
    Institution of American slavery in the S. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the N, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the S, where slavery became increasingly entrenched
  254. Peninsula Campaign
    Union General George B. McClellan’s failed effort to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital. Had McClellan taken Richmond and toppled the Confederacy, slavery would have most likely survived in the S for some time
  255. Pequot War
    English settlers vs Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River valley. Ended in the death of Pequots by Puritans and Narragansett Indian allies
  256. Pet banks
    Pro-Jackson state banks that received most of the fed deposits when Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the US
  257. Pinckney's Treaty
    Signed with Spain who feared Anglo-American alliance and gave US free navigation of Mississippi and disputed Florida territory
  258. Plantation
    Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops/employing coerced or slave labor. Euro settlers est. plantations in Africa, S America, the Caribbean and the US S.
  259. Pontiac's uprising
    Bloody campaign against Brits by Ottawa chief Pontiac, to get them out of Ohio. Crushed by Brits with inflected blankets
  260. Pony Express
    Short lived speedy mail service with Missouri and California based on lightweight riders between outposts
  261. Pope's Rebellion
    Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico
  262. Popular sovereignty
    People in the territory decide if it's slave or not
  263. Predestination
    Calvinist doctrine: God predetermined heaven bound and hell bound. Sought to live sanctified lives to prove their worth
  264. Primogeniture
    Legal principle: Oldest son gets inheritance. Younger had to find wealth, often went to America
  265. Privateers
    Privately owned armed ships authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping in the Revolutionary war.
  266. Proclamation of 1763
    Decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac’s uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians. Contributed to rising resentment of Brit rule in the American colonies
  267. Proprietary Colonies
    Maryland, Penn, Delaware under the control of local proprietors appointed colonial gov
  268. Protestant reformation
    Movement to reform Catholic church in Germany by Martin Luther. Questioned Pope, eliminated indulgences, encouraged Latin Bible translation, and in 1530 when King Henry VIII broke with Roman Catholic Church
  269. Puritans
    Eng. Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds. Most devout believed only visible saints should be admitted to church membership
  270. Quartering Act
    Allowed Brit troops to take food/housing from colonists who resented it, saw it as right infringing
  271. Quebec Act
    Let Fren. residents of Quebec retain traditional political/religious institutions/extended boundaries of the province S to Ohio River.
  272. Battle of Quebec
    Brit victory over Fren outside of Quebec, its surrender = begin of end of Fren rule in N America
  273. Queen Anne's War
    2nd in a series of conflicts between the Euro powers for control of N America, fought between the Eng and Fren colonists in the N, and the Eng and Span in Florida. Under the peace treaty, the Fren ceded Acadia (Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to Brit.
  274. Radical Whigs
    18th cent Brit political commentators who agitated against political corruption/emphasized threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Writings shaped US political thought/made colonists esp. alert to rights
  275. Reconstruction Act
    New Republican Congress, divide S into 5 military districts, disenfranchised former confederates, and made S states ratify 14th amendment
  276. Redeemers
    S democratic politicians who sought to wrest control from Republican regime in S after Reconstruction
  277. Reform Bill of 1867
    Granted suffrage to all male Brit citizens, dramatically expanding electorate, success of US democratic experiment reinforced by Union victory in Civil War used as arguments in favor of the bill
  278. Regulars
    Trained professional soldiers used in French and Indian War, Brit gen. often hated non-regulars.
  279. Regulator Movement
    Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in N Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite
  280. Reign of Terror
    10 month brutal repression when ~40,000 were executed as enemies of Fren Revolution. Jeffersonians stayed faithful, Federalists withdrew any support
  281. Rendezvous
    Principle marketplace of NW fur trade, peaked in 1820s and 1830s, each summer traders set up camps in the Rocky Mountains to trade.
  282. Republicans
    Political theory of representative gov. based on pop. sovereignty, emphasizing liberty and civic virtue
  283. Responsorial
    Call and response style of preaching that melded Christian and African traditions, practiced by S slaves
  284. Revolution of 1800
    Electoral victory of Democratic Republic over Federalists who lost Congressional majority/pres. Peaceful transfer of power kept faith in the system
  285. Roanoke Island
    Sir Walter Raliegh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of N Carolina
  286. Royal African Company
    Eng. joint stock company, had state granted monopoly on colonial slave trade from 1672-1698, more slaves after loss of monopoly
  287. Royal colonies
    Gov. appointed by King.
  288. Rush bagot agreement
    Signed by Brit and US, est. limits on naval armaments in Great Lakes, 1st step in demilitarizing US/Canada border completed in the 1870s
  289. Russo-American Treaty
    54° 40' as S most boundary of Russian holdings in N America
  290. Salem witch trials
    Witchcraft trials after teen girls claimed to be bewitched by older women, 20 executed until Gov of Massachusetts stopped it.
  291. Salutary Neglect
    Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and weak enforcement of Navigation Laws, from Glorious Revolution to 1763
  292. Battle of San Jacinto
    Captured Mexican dictator Santa Anna, forced to withdraw troops from Texas/recognize Rio Grande as TX SW border
  293. Battle of Saratoga
    Decisive colonial victory in upstate NY, helped get Fren support for Revolution
  294. Scalawags
    Derogatory term for proUnion S. who S democrats accused of plundering resources of the S in collusion with Republican gov after Civil War
  295. 2nd Anglo Powhatan War
    Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
  296. 2nd Battle of Bull Run
    Civil War battle, ended in Confederate victory for Robert E Lee to push farther N
  297. 2nd Continental Congress
    • Representative body of delegates from all
    • 13 colonies. Drafted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.
  298. 2nd Great Awakening
    Religious revival characterized by emotional mass “camp meetings” and widespread conversion. Brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for member
  299. Sedition Act
    • Enacted by the Federalist Congress in an effort to clamp down on Jeffersonian opposition, the law made anyone convicted of defaming government officials or interfering with government policies liable to imprisonment and a heavy fine.
    • The act drew heavy criticism from Republicans, who let the act expire in 1801
  300. Self Reliance
    Ralph Waldo Emerson’s popular lecture-essay that reflected the spirit of individualism pervasive in American popular culture during the 1830s and 1840s.
  301. Separatists
    Small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of Eng; after initially settling in Holland, a number of Eng Separatists made their way to Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts in 1620
  302. Seventh of March Speech
    Daniel Webster’s impassioned address urging the N to support of the Compromise of 1850. Webster argued that topography and climate would keep slavery from becoming entrenched in Mexican Cession territory and urged N to make all reasonable concessions to prevent disunion
  303. Seward's Folly
    Secretary of State William Seward's purchase of Alask.
  304. Shakers
    Named for their lively dance worship, simple, communal, celibate, living. First in US from Eng. thanks to Mother Ann Lee, had 6000 members by 1840 but almost died out by 1940s
  305. Shay's Rebellion
    Armed uprising of W Mass. debtors seeking lower taxes and end to property foreclosures. Stopped fast, but "mob rule" fear rose among Revolutionaries
  306. Sherman's march
    Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's destructive march through Georgia. Total war to cut morale.
  307. Battle of Shiloh
    Bloody civil war battle on Tennesse Mississippi border, 23,000 deathes and marginal Union victory
  308. Society of Cincinnati
    Exclusive hereditary organization of former officers in the Continental army. Resented pretentiousness of order
  309. Sons of Liberty
    Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the stamp act.
  310. South Carolina Slave revolt
    Uprising AKA Stono Rebellion, 50+ S Carolina blacks tried to get to Span Florida but stopped by S Carolina militia
  311. Spanish Armada
    Span. fleet defeated in Eng channel in 1588, representing decline of Spanish Empire
  312. Specie Circular
    US Treasury decree requiring public lands be purchased with "hard" or metallic currency because of unreliable paper money
  313. Spoils system
    Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office 1st by A. Jackson, abused, eventually led to the two party system
  314. Spot resolutions
    Measures introduced by Illinois congressman Lincoln questioning Pres. James K. Polk's Justification for war with Mex.
  315. Squatters
    Frontier farmers who occupied land owned by others
  316. Stamp Act Congress
    Assembly of delegates from 9 colonies in NYC to draft petition for repeal of Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote inercolonial unity
  317. Stamp tax
    Widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed in 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of “no taxation without representation” which questioned Parliament’s authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims.
  318. Sugar Act
    Duty on imported sugar from W Indies, 1st tax levied on colonists by crown, lowered after protests
  319. Tallmadge amendment
    Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. S vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between N and S
  320. Tammany Hall
    Powerful NY poltical machine drawing support from immigrants for social services
  321. Tariff
    Tax levied on imports
  322. Tariff of 1816
    1st protective tariff in US history, created primarily to shield New Eng manufacturers from the inflow of Brit goods after the War of 1812.
  323. Tariff of 1842
    Protective measure passed by Congressional Whigs, raising tariffs to pre-Compromise of 1833 rates
  324. Tariff of Abominations
    Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. S vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt S farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures
  325. Tenure of Office ACt
    Made pres. get approval from Senate before removing appointees. A. Jackson was impeached for removing his secretary of war for violating this. Stayed in office though
  326. 13th amendment
    Prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude
  327. 3/5th compromise
    Determined that each slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to S slave states
  328. Three sister farming
    North American Indians as early as 1000; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
  329. Battle of Tippecanoe
    Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, “the Prophet” at the hands William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness. After the battle, the Prophet’s brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the Brit against the US
  330. Treaty of Tordesillas
    Signed by Span. and Portuagal, dividing territories of New World, Span got most of Americas, Portugal got Africa and Asia
  331. Townshend Act
    External/indirect levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. Proceeds went to pay colonial governors
  332. Trail of Tears
    Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. ~4000 died.
  333. Transportation Revolution
    Series of 19th cent transportation innovations, turnpikes, steamboats, canals and railroads that linked local and regional markets creating a national economy
  334. Trent affair
    Diplomatic row that threatened to bring the Brit into the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy, after a Union warship stopped a Brit steamer and arrested two Confederate diplomats on board
  335. Battle of Trenton
    George Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping German Hessians, raising the morale of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later
  336. Triangular Trade
    Exchange of rum, slaves and molasses between N American colonies, Africa and W Indies.
  337. Tripolitan War
    4-year conflict between the American Navy and the North-African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean. Jefferson, a staunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed US forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli
  338. Turnpike
    Privately funded toll-based public road constructed in the early 19th cent to facilitate commerce
  339. Tuscarora War
    Began with an Indian attack on Newbern, N Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated, remaining Indian survivors migrated northward, eventually joining the Iroquois Confederacy as its 6th nation
  340. US Sanitary Commission
    Founded with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies, and equipped hospitals in an effort to help the Union Army. The commission helped professionalize nursing and gave many women the confidence and organizational skills to propel the women’s movement in the postwar years
  341. Union League
    Reconstruction era black organization to edu S blacks about civic life, built black schools and churches
  342. Union party
    A coalition party of pro-war Democrats and Republicans formed during the 1864 election to defeat anti-war N Democrats
  343. Unitarians
    Believe in a unitary deity, reject the divinity of Christ, and emphasize the inherent goodness of mankind. Unitarianism, inspired in part by Deism, 1st caught on in New Eng at the end of the 18th century
  344. Valley Forge
    Encampment where George Washington’s poorly-equipped army spent a wretched, freezing winter. Hundreds of men died and more than a thousand deserted. The plight of the starving, shivering soldiers reflected the main weakness of the American army—a lack of stable supplies and munitions
  345. Siege of Vicksburg
    Two-and-a-half-month siege of a Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee. Vicksburg finally fell to Ulysses S. Grant in July of 1863, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River and splitting the S in 2
  346. Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
    Statements secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison for the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. Argued that states were the final arbiters of whether the fed gov overstepped its boundaries and could therefore nullify, or refuse to accept, national legislation they deemed unconstitutional
  347. Virginia Plan
    "Large state” proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation
  348. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
    Measure enacted by Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship, served as a model for religion clause of 1st amendment
  349. Wade-Davis Bill
    Passed by Congressional Republicans in response to Abraham Lincoln’s “10 percent plan,” it required that 50% of a state’s voters pledge allegiance to the Union, and set stronger safeguards for emancipation. Reflected divisions between Congress and the President, and between radical and moderate Republicans, over the treatment of the defeated S
  350. Walker Tariff
    Revenue-enhancing measure that lowered tariffs from 1842 levels thereby fueling trade and increasing Treasury receipts
  351. Treaty of Wanghia
    Signed by the U.S. and China, it assured the US the same trading concessions granted to other powers, greatly expanding US trade with the Chinese
  352. War Hawks
    Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, the war hawks resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier.
  353. War of 1812
    Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America’s willingness to defend its interest militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers
  354. War of Jenkin's Ear
    Small-scale clash between Britain and Spain in the Caribbean and in the buffer colony, Georgia. It merged with the much larger War of Austrian Succession in 1742
  355. West African Squadron
    British Royal Navy force formed to enforce the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. It intercepted hundreds of slave ships and freed thousands of Africans
  356. West Virginia
    Mountainous region that broke away from Virginia in 1861 to form its own state after Virginia seceded from the Union. Most of the residents of West Virginia were independent farmers and miners who did not own slaves and thus opposed the Confederate cause
  357. Whiskey Rebellion
    Uprising of whiskey distillers in SW Penn over excise tax on whiskey, crushed fast by Wash to display power
  358. Wilderness Campaign
    A series of brutal clashes between Ulysses S. Grant’s and Robert E. Lee’s armies in Virginia, leading up to Grant’s capture of Richmond in April of 1865. Having lost Richmond, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
  359. Wilmot Proviso
    Amendment that sought to prohibit slave ry from territories acquired from Mexico. Introduced by Pennsylvania congressman  David Wilmot, the failed amendment ratcheted up tensions between N and S over the issue of slavery
  360. Woman's Loyal League
    Helped end Civil War and encourage Congress to pass constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery
  361. Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls
    Feminists activists in Seneca Falls NY where Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her "Declaration of Sentiments" stating all men and women are equal
  362. Writ of Habeas corpus
    Petition requiring law enforcement officers to present detained individuals before the court to examine the legality of the arrest. Protects individuals from arbitrary state action. Suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War
  363. XYZ affair
    Diplomatic conflict between France and the United States when American envoys to France were asked to pay a hefty bribe for the privilege of meeting with the French foreign minister. Many in the U.S. called for war against France, while American sailors and privateers waged an undeclared war against French merchants in the Caribbean
  364. Yamase Indians
    Defeated by the south Carolinans in the war of  1715–1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the Southern colonies.
  365. Battle of Yorktown
    George Washington, with the aid of the French Army, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, while the French naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore. Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for an eventual peace
  366. Zenger Trial
    New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel.

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