Ch 3 - 2 of 2: Expansion and Peripherals

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Ch 3 - 2 of 2: Expansion and Peripherals
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Expansion Peripherals
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Chapter 3 - 2 of 2 A+ Study Guide
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  1. __ is a circuit board you install into a computer to increase the capabilities of that computer. __ come in varying formats for different uses, but the important thing to note is that no matter what function a card has, the card being installed must match the bus type of the motherboard you are installing it into.
    Expansion card (also known as an adapter card)
  2. __ is the expansion card you put into a computer to allow the computer to display information on some kind of monitor. A video card is also responsible for converting the data sent to it by the CPU into the pixels, addresses, and other items required for display.
    Video Card
  3. __ are devices used to convert computer signals into sound. A __ typically has small, round, 1/8 g jacks on the back of it for connecting microphones, headphones, and speakers as well as other sound equipment. Many __ used to have a DA15 game port, which can be used for either joysticks or MIDI controllers. Sound cards today might come with an RCA jack . This is for a digital audio specification known as the Sony/Philips Digital Interface (S/PDIF). Not only does this format allow you to transmit audio in digital clarity, but in addition to specifying an RCA jack and coaxial copper cabling, it specifies optical fiber connectors (TOSLINK) and cabling for electrically noisy environments, further increasing transmission quality of the digital signal.
    Sound Card
  4. The __ is a class of internal and external devices that allows you to connect a broadcast signal, such as home cable television, to your computer and display the output on the computer monitor. __ come in analog, digital, and hybrid varieties. Most TV tuner cards act as video capture cards as well.
    TV Tuner Cards
  5. A __ card is often used to save a video stream to the computer for later manipulation or sharing. Video-sharing sites on the Internet make __ quite popular with enterprises and Internet socialites alike.
    Video Capture Cards
  6. __ is often used as a catchall phrase for any expansion card that expands the system to interface with devices that offer input to the system, output from the system, or both. Common examples of __ are the classic serial (RS-232) and parallel (printer) ports and drive interface connections.
    I/O card
  7. __ is an expansion card that connects a computer to a network so that it can communicate with other computers on that network. It translates the data from the parallel data stream used inside the computer into the serial data stream that makes up the frames used on the network.
    Network Interface Card (NIC)
  8. __ have the unique characteristic of requiring that you configure their connecting device before configuring the __. __ can generally create a link and begin operation just by being physically connected out of the box to a hub or switch. The wireless access point or ad hoc partner computer must also be configured before secure communication, at a minimum, can occur by using a __.
    Wireless NICs
  9. Almost every cellular service provider offers a line of adapters that can be installed into or inserted on the outside of desktop and laptop computers. In addition, depending on your service plan, most smartphones can be tethered to your computer and used as a cellular gateway. The __ comes with a setup program that configures the card for the service provider’s network. From that point, anytime you are in a cellular service area, you can use the adapter to gain access to the Internet through the provider or by roaming on the network of a partner or competitor with which an agreement has been reached in that area.
    Cellular Cards
  10. Any computer that connects to the Internet using an analog dial-up connection needs a __. A __ is a device that converts digital signals from a computer into analog signals that can be transmitted over phone lines and back again. These expansion card devices have one connector for the expansion bus being used (PCIe, PCI, and so on) and another for connection to the telephone line.
    Modem, or modulator/ demodulator
  11. An alternative motherboard form factor, known as New Low-Profile Extended (NLX), or one of its offshoots have been used in some types of low-profile cases. NLX places the expansion slots sideways on a __ to use the reduced vertical space optimally. Adapter cards that normally plug into expansion slots vertically in other motherboards plug in parallel to the motherboard, so their second most demanding dimension does not affect case height.
    Riser Cards
  12. __ connectors, for a number of years the most common style of connector found on computers, are typically designated with D Xn , where the letter X is replaced by the letters A through E , which refer to the size of the connector, and the letter n is replaced by the number of pins or sockets in the connector. __ connectors are usually shaped like a trapezoid and have at least two rows of pins with no other keying structure or landmark. The “D” shape ensures that only one orientation is possible. If you try to connect them upside down or try to connect a male connector to another male connector, they just won’t go together and the connection can’t be made.
    D-subminiature Connectors
  13. __ connectors are most often used in telecommunications. The two most common examples of __ ports are __11 and __45. __-11 connectors are used most often on flat satin cables in telephone hookups. The ports in older external and internal analog modems are __-11. __-45 connectors, on the other hand, are larger and most commonly found on Ethernet networks that use twisted-pair cabling.
    Registered jack
  14. __ ports are used for connecting multiple (up to 127) peripherals to one computer through a single port with the use of multiport peripheral hubs. __ version 1.x supports data rates as high as 12Mbps (1.5MBps). __ 2.0 supports data rates as high as 480Mbps (60MBps) high speed, 40 times that of its predecessor. USB 3.0 boasts data rates of 5Gbps super speed, more than 10 times the rate of USB 2.0.
    Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  15. While not as prevalent as USB ports, one other port has crept into the mainstream and is included as a standard attachment in small numbers, often only one, on motherboards and laptops. That port is the __. Its popularity is due to its ease of use, isochronous (synchronized clock) mode, and very high (400Mbps to 3.2Gbps and higher) transmission rates.
    IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
  16. __ is a small port on the computer that allows data to be sent and received using electromagnetic radiation in the __ band. The __ itself is a small, dark square of plastic and can typically be found on the front of a PC or on the side of a laptop or portable. __ send and receive data at a very slow rate (the maximum speed on PC infrared ports is less than 4Mbps). Most __ support the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standard, which outlines a standard way of transmitting and receiving information by infrared so that devices can communicate with one another.
    Infrared (IR) port
  17. __ jacks and connectors (or plugs) are used to transmit both audio and video information. Typically, when you see a yellow-coded RCA connector on a PC video card, it’s for composite video output (output to a television or VCR). However, digital audio can be implemented with S/PDIF, which can be deployed with a __ jack. __ jacks are considered coaxial because the outer circular conductor and the center pin that collectively make up the unbalanced single transmit/receive pair have the same axis of rotation, co-axial. An __ jack and cable carry either audio or video, not both simultaneously.
    RCA
  18. A __ connector is a mouse and keyboard interface port. It is smaller than previous interfaces (the DIN 5 keyboard port and serial mouse connector), and thus its popularity increased quickly.
    PS/2 port (also known as a mini-DIN 6)
  19. 1/8 g (3.5mm) stereo__, so called for their size and the fact that they make contact with both the left and right audio channels through their tip, rings (if they have any), and sleeve.
    minijacks
  20. The __ connector is a micro ribbon connector named for the Wang subsidiary that created it. It has a unique shape which consists of a central connection bar surrounding by an outer shielding ring. The __ connector was primarily used in parallel printer connections and SCSI interfaces. It is most often found on peripherals, not on computers themselves (except in the case of some older 50-pin SCSI interface cards).
    Centronics
  21. __, also known as 7.1 surround sound. The 7 represents the seven full-bandwidth channels and the 1 represents the one low frequency effects (LFE) channel, most often attached to the subwoofer. Each of the full-bandwidth channels is often represented by its own speaker in the system, but not necessarily. If there is a 1:1 channel-to-speaker representation, the eight speakers in __ 7.1 are generally placed equidistant from the audience as follows, with all angles measured from front center:
    One center speaker at 0 degrees (at the video source)
    Left and right front speakers at 22 to 30 degrees
    Left and right side speakers at 90 to 110 degrees
    Left and right rear speakers at 135 to 150 degrees
    One subwoofer possibly hidden anywhere in the room
    8-channel audio
  22. __ communications take the interstate approach to data communications. This is the case mainly because you can fit multiple cars going the same direction on the same highway by using multiple lanes. On the return trip, you take a similar path, but on a completely separate road. The __ printer interface transfers data 8 bits at a time over eight separate transmit wires inside a __ cable (1 bit per wire). Normal __ interfaces use a DB25 female connector on the computer to transfer data to peripherals. __ ports are faster than the original serial ports, which were also once used for printers in electrically noisy environments or at greater distances from the computer.
    Parallel Interfaces
  23. The __ parallel port only transmits data out of the computer. It cannot receive data (except for a single wire carrying a Ready signal). The __ parallel port was found on the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. It can transmit data at only 150KBps and was most commonly used to transmit data to printers. This technology also had a maximum transmission distance of 10 feet.
    Standard Parallel Ports
  24. The __ parallel port has one important advantage over a standard parallel port: It can both transmit and receive data. These parallel ports are capable of interfacing with such devices as external CD-ROM drives and external parallel port backup drives (Zip, Jaz, and tape drives). Most computers made since 1994 that included a parallel printer port had this bidirectional parallel port. For bidirectional communication to occur properly, the cable must support bidirectional communication as well.
    Bidirectional Parallel Ports
  25. Double-speed CD-ROM drives had a transfer rate of 300KBps, but the parallel port could transfer data at only 150KBps, thus limiting the speed at which a computer could retrieve data from an external device. To solve that problem, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) came up with a standard for enhanced parallel ports called IEEE 1284. The IEEE 1284 standard provides for greater data transfer speeds and the ability to send memory addresses as well as data through a parallel port. This standard allows the parallel port to theoretically act as an extension to the main bus. In addition, these ports are backward compatible with the standard and bidirectional ports and support cable lengths of 4.5 meters, which is almost 15 feet.
    Enhanced Parallel Ports
  26. An  __ is designed to transfer data at even higher speeds, around 2MBps. __ uses direct memory access (DMA) and buffering to increase printing performance over EPP.
    enhanced capabilities port (ECP)
  27. An __ increases bidirectional throughput from 150KBps to anywhere from 600KBps to 1.5MBps.
    Enhanced Parallel Port EPP
  28. There are five data transfer implementations of __, two of which are EPP parallel ports and ECP parallel ports. __ also allows for backward support of the standard parallel port (SPP) in compatibility mode. The cable must also have full support for __ in order for proper communications to occur in both directions and at rated speeds.
    IEEE 1284
  29. If standard parallel communications were similar to taking the interstate, then RS-232 __ communications were similar to taking a country road. In __ communications, bits of data are sent one after another (single file, if you will) down one wire, and they return on a different wire in the same cable. Three main types of __ interfaces are available today: standard serial (RS-232), Universal Serial Bus (USB), and FireWire (IEEE 1394). USB and FireWire use increased signaling frequencies to overcome serial’s stigma and join other serial technologies, such as PCIe and SATA, as frontrunners in data communications.
    Serial
  30. __ serial ports have a maximum data transmission speed of 57Kbps and a maximum cable length of 50 feet. Serial cables come in two common wiring configurations: standard serial cable and null modem serial cable. A __ cable is used to hook various peripherals such as modems and printers to a computer.
    Standard Serial
  31. A __cable is used to hook two computers together without a modem. The transmit-centric pins on one end are wired to the receive-centric pins on the other side, so it’s as if a modem connection exists between the two computers but without the need for a modem. In the null modem diagram, notice how the transmit (tx) pins on one end are wired to the receive (rx) pins on the other and how certain pins are looped back on each end to fool the computer into believing a modem is ready for its transmission.
    null modem serial
  32. __ cables are used to connect a wide variety of peripherals to computers, including keyboards, mice, digital cameras, printers, and scanners. A standard USB cable has some form of Type A connector on one end and some form of Type B connector on the other end.
    Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  33. The specification for __, also known as SuperSpeed, recommends a standard blue color coding for all interfaces and cables as a way of differentiating them from legacy cables and interfaces. The connectors also feature five additional pins that are not accessible to 1.x/2.0 connectors and receptacles. __ supports continuous bursting as well as streaming. __ supports dual simplex communications pathways that collectively imitate full-duplex transmission, where devices at both ends of the cable can transmit simultaneously. __ endpoints use an asynchronous transmission mechanism, similar to that of Ethernet, where data is transmitted at will. __ endpoints can all control when they enter low-power mode to conserve power. Error handling and flow control are performed on each link in __, not just at the endpoints. __ provides 150mA at low power and 900mAat high power allowing for the direct powering of some of the same component types that FireWire is capable of powering but that USB 2.0 is not.
    USB 3.0
  34. __ does not support bursting, the low-duration, excessively fast transmission of data, nor does it support streaming, the continuous flow of data between two endpoints once the flow has begun. __ is a half-duplex technology, meaning that all devices must share a common bandwidth, making overall performance appear subpar. __ peripheral devices must wait until polled by the host before transmitting data. The host is the only device in the __ specification that can control power management. The endpoints are the only devices that can participate in error detection and recovery as well as flow control. __ provides a maximum of 100 milliamperes (mA) of current at low power and 500mA at high power. 128 possible addresses, no more than 127 devices, including hubs, should be connected back to a single USB host controller in the computer.
    USB 2.0
  35. __ USB is always oriented toward the system from the component. As a result, you might notice that the USB receptacle on the computer system that a component cables back to is the same as the receptacles on the USB hub that components cable back to. The USB hub is simply an extension of the system and becomes a component that cables back to the system. Each hub takes one of the 127 available addresses.
    Type A
  36. __ plugs connect in the direction of the peripheral component. Therefore, you see a single Type B interface on the hub as well as on the peripheral endpoints to allow them to cable back to the system or another hub. Although they exist, USB cables with both ends of the same type, a sort of extension cable, are in violation of the USB specification.
    Type B
  37. The __ interface is about two things, if nothing else: speed and efficiency. Its first iteration, now known as __, has a maximum data throughput of 400Mbps in half duplex. Although the numbers imply that USB 2.0 at 480Mbps might outperform __ , the truth is that __ allows a closer saturation of the bandwidth by its devices due to its different encoding mechanism. USB devices are lucky to achieve half of their bus’s rated bandwidth during sustained operation. Another difference between the two technologies is the amount of power accessible to __ devices. Whereas USB provides less than an ampere of current at 5VDC, F__ specifications allow for the provision of 1.5A at up to 30VDC (and slightly more in some implementations). This production of 45W of power allows for larger devices to be powered by the __ interface, obviating the need for separate external power. __ allows 1023 buses, each supporting 63 devices, to be bridged together. This networkable architecture supports more than 64,000 interconnected devices that can communicate directly with one another instead of communicating through a host computer the way USB is required to do. A hop can be thought of as a link between any two end devices, repeaters, or bridges, resulting in a total maximum distance between devices of 72 meters.
    IEEE 1394 (FireWire 400)
  38. __ standardized the running of FireWire over the same Category 5e infrastructure that supports Ethernet, including the use of RJ-45 connectors.
    IEEE 1394c
  39. __, has a maximum data throughput of 800Mbps and works in full duplex. __ carries data over a maximum cable length of 4.5 meters with a maximum of 63 devices connected to each interface on the computer. Using new beta connectors and associated cabling, including a fiber-optic solution, __ extends to 100 meters. When implemented over copper, __, is limited to 4.5m cable runs. __ also allows for 1.6Gbps (S1600) and 3.2Gbps (S3200) implementations.
    IEEE 1394b (FireWire 800)
  40. Through an internal hub, a single end device can use two IEEE 1394 ports to connect to two different devices, creating a __ pathway that allows the other two devices to communicate with one another as well. The device in the middle, which can be the computer system or any peripheral device, affords a physical pathway between the other two devices but is not otherwise involved in their communication with one another. Contrast this function to that of the USB host, which, prior to version 3.0, had to be involved in all transactions. USB 3.0 does not provide bridged networking the way FireWire does but allows the devices to initiate communication and other transactions.
    Daisy-chain
  41. The __ cable is a simple coaxial cable. There are two connectors, usually male, one on each end of the cable. There are two contacts on each connector, the ground ring and the positive data pin in the middle. The male connector connects to the female connector on the equipment. It’s used to extend the reach of audio or video signals. The __ male connectors on a connection cable are sometimes plated in gold to increase their corrosion resistance and to improve longevity.
    RCA
  42. The __ connector is a smaller 6-pin mini-DIN connector. Many new PCs you can purchase today contain a __ keyboard connector as well as a __ mouse connector right above it on the motherboard.
    PS/2
  43. An analog-only connector. The source must produce analog output, and the monitor must understand analog input.
    DVI-A
  44. A digital-only connector. The source must produce digital output, and the monitor must understand digital input.
    DVI-D
  45. A combination analog/digital connector. The source and monitor must both support the same technology, but this cable works with either a digital or an analog signal.
    DVI-I
  46. The __ DVI-D and DVI-I connectors have more conductors—taking into account the six center conductors—than their single-link counterparts, which accommodate higher speed and signal quality. The additional link can be used to increase resolution from 1920 n 1080 to 2048 n 1536 for devices with a 16:9 aspect ratio or from WUXGA to WQXGA for devices with a 16:10 aspect ratio. Of course, both components, as well as the cable, must support the __ feature.
    dual-link
  47. __ is an all-digital technology that advances the work of DVI to include the same dual-link resolutions using a standard HDMI cable but with higher motion-picture frame rates and digital audio right on the same connector. __ cabling also supports an optional Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) feature that allows transmission of signals from a remote control unit to control multiple devices without separate cabling to carry infrared signals. __ is compatible with DVI-D and DVI-I interfaces through proper adapters, but __ audio and remote-control pass-through features are lost. Additionally, 3D video sources work only with __.
    High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
  48. You are generally able to get better-quality video by splitting the red, green, and blue components in the signal into different streams right at the source. The technology known as __ performs a signal-splitting function similar to RGB separation. However, unlike RGB separation, which requires full-bandwidth red, green, and blue signals as well as a fourth pathway for synchronization, the most popular implementation of __ uses one uncompressed signal and two compressed signals, reducing the overall bandwidth needed. These signals are delivered over coax either as red, green, and blue color-coded RCA plugs or similarly coded BNC connectors, the latter being seen mostly in broadcast-quality applications.
    Component Video
  49. The uncompressed signal is called __, which is essentially the colorless version of the original signal that represents the “brightness” of the source feed as a grayscale image. The component-video source also creates two compressed color-difference signals known as Pb and Pr. __ is a gamma-correcting, nonlinear display concept related to but not equivalent to luminance, which is a linear, non-gamma-corrected measure of light intensity. Display devices perform nonlinear gamma decompression, which means a complementary nonlinear gamma compression (correction) must have been performed by the transmitter for the resulting image to be displayed properly. Thus, __, not luminance , is the appropriate term when discussing component video.
    luma (Y)
  50. These two__ signals are also known as B – Y and R – Y, respectively, because they are created by subtracting out the luma from the blue and red source signals.
    chrominance (chroma)
  51. The component video analog technology is most often referred to and labeled as__.
    YPbPr
  52. The digital version of component video, usually found on high-end devices, replaces analog’s Pb and Pr and is most often labeled __.
    YCbCr
  53. Although Y is commonly used to represent luma, it actually stands for luminance. As a result, if you ever see a reference to Y´PbPr or Y?bCr, the __refers correctly to luma. The more common, yet less correct, Y is used here to refer to luma.
    Y-prime
  54. There is no need for a separate __ signal. Essentially, the luma signal is used as a colorless map for the detail of the image. The receiving display device adds the luma signal from the Y lead back to the blue and red color-difference signals that were received on the Pb and Pr leads, recreating compressed versions of the full blue and red source signals. Whatever details in the luma version of the image have weak representation in the blue and red versions of the image are inferred to be green. Therefore, you can conclude that by providing one full signal (Y) and two compressed signals (Pb and Pr) that are related to the full signal (Pb = B – Y and Pr = R – Y), you can transmit roughly the same information as three full signals (R, G, and B) but with less bandwidth.
    green color-difference
  55. __ is a component video technology that, in its basic form, combines the two chroma signals into one, resulting in video quality not quite as high as that of YPbPr. This is because the R, G, and B signals are harder to approximate after the Pb and Pr signals have been combined. __ connector, is a 7-pin mini-DIN, mini-DIN of various pin counts being the most common connector type. The most basic connector is a 4-pin mini-DIN that has, quite simply, one luma and one chroma output lead and a ground for each. A 4-pin male connector is compatible with a 7-pin female connector, both in fit and pin functionality. The converse is not also true, however. The 6-pin and 7-pin versions add composite video leads, which are discussed next. Some 7-pin ports use the extra pins to provide full Y, Pb, and Pr leads with four ground leads, making those implementations of __ equivalent to component video. ATI has used 8-, 9-, and 10-pin versions of the connector that include such added features as an S-video input path in addition to output (from the perspective of the video source), bidirectional pin functionality, and audio input/output.
    S-video
  56. __ combines all luma and chroma leads into one. __ is truly the bottom of the analog-video barrel. However, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) signal received by over-the-air antennas or by cable-TV feeds is composite video, making it a very common video signal. Once the four signals are combined into one, the display equipment has no way of faithfully splitting them back out, leading to less than optimal quality but great cost efficiency. A single yellow RCA jack, the composite video jack is rather common on computers and home and industrial video components. __ is more susceptible to undesirable video phenomena and artifacts, such as aliasing, cross coloration, and dot crawl. If you have a three-connector cable on your home video equipment, such as a DVD player connected to a TV, odds are the tips will be yellow, red, and white. The red and white leads are for left and right stereo audio; the yellow lead is your composite video.
    Composite Video
  57. __ is a royalty-free digital display interface from the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) that uses less power than other digital interfaces and VGA. A simple adapter allows HDMI and DVI voltages to be lowered to those required by __ because it is functionally similar to HDMI and DVI. __ cables can extend 3 meters unless an active cable powers the run, in which case the cable can extend to 33 meters. The __ connector latches itself to the receptacle with two tiny hooks in the same way that micro-B USB connectors do.
    DisplayPort
  58. __ the generic term for the class of drivers associated with scanners, such as Select TWAIN Source. This selection allows you to choose among multiple scanners before initiating the scan job.
    TWAIN
  59. A __ is a specialized input device commonly used in retail and other industrial sectors that manage inventory. The systems that the reader connects to can be so specialized that they have no other input device. __ can use LEDs or lasers as light sources and can scan one- or two-dimensional barcodes.
    Barcode Reader
  60. One way to faithfully reproduce incredibly good artwork in digital form for computer use is to place the analog artwork on top of a sensor and use a stylus to trace the artwork after choosing an onscreen “crayon” or “pen.” The end result can be a work of art almost as good as the original. The device used to trace an analog source, turning it into a digital representation, is a __. __, in fact, is the act of turning any analog source—artwork, audio, video, slides and photographs—into a binary bit stream. As an input device, however, a __ or __ tablet takes pen strokes in the analog world and turns them into a digital rendering through the software controlling the digitizer.
    Digitizer
  61. Any device that measures one or more physical or behavioral features of an organism is considered a __. When the same device forwards this biometric information to the computer, it becomes an input device. The list includes fingerprint scanners, retinal and iris scanners, voice recognition devices, and facial recognition devices, to name a few. A computer can use this input to authenticate the user based on pre-established biometric information captured during user setup.
    Biometric Devices
  62. Microphones, audio playback, and audio synthesizing devices are common input components connected to a sound card or serial port so that audio from these devices can be collected and processed. __ devices, called controllers, which create messages describing, and thus synthesizing, the user’s intended musical performance. These devices do not make sound that is recorded directly; they are merely designed to somewhat realistically fabricate the music the instruments they represent might produce. __ files, therefore, are much smaller than files that contain digitized audio waveforms. Modern __ controllers use 5-pin DIN connectors that look like the original AT keyboard connector.
    Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

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