GCSE PE 1.2.2 - Cardiovascular System

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Author:
HLHSPE
ID:
271363
Filename:
GCSE PE 1.2.2 - Cardiovascular System
Updated:
2014-04-21 17:11:20
Tags:
Cardiovascular
Folders:
GCSE PE
Description:
Revision questions for the Cardiovascular section
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  1. What are the components of the Cardiovascular System?
    Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels
  2. What are the immediate and short-term effects of participation in exercise and
    physical activity?
    • Increased heart rate,
    • Increased systolic blood pressure / Increased blood pressure
    • Increased Cardiac Output
    • Increased Stroke Volume
  3. What is Stroke Volume?
    Amount of blood pumped out of the heart per beat
  4. What is Cardiac Output?
    Amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute
  5. What is the equation for Cardiac Output?
    CO = HR x SV
  6. What is the definition of Heart Rate?
    The number of times the heart beats per minute
  7. What are the 3 functions of the Cardiovascular System?
    • 1.Transports oxygen and
    • nutrients and remove waste products e.g Carbon Dioxide

    2. Control body temperature

    • 3. Protect
    • – disease and bloody clotting (white blood cells /platelets)
  8. What are the 4 components of blood?
    • Red Blood Cells
    • White Blood Cells
    • Platelets
    • Plasma
  9. What is the function of Red Blood Cells?
    • Transport Oxygen
    • - These increase as a long term adaptation to exercise
  10. What is the function of White Blood Cells?
    Carry antibodies to fight infection
  11. What is the function of platelets?
    Clot the blood / wounds to prevent blood loss
  12. What is the function of Plasma?
    it is 90% water and transports platelets
  13. What are the 3 blood vessels in the body?
    • Arteries
    • Capillaries
    • Veins
  14. What takes blood Away from the heart?
    Arteries
  15. Where does gaseous exchange of Oxygen into the muscle/alveoli and Carbon Dioxide out of the muscle/alveoli take place?
    Capillaries
  16. What do Veins do?
    Take blood into the Heart
  17. How is the structure of an artery suited to its function?
    • Structure - thick elastic muscle
    • allows the artery to be stretched

    Function - Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart at high pressure.
  18. How is the structure of a Vein suited to its function?
    Function - Bring de-oxygenated blood back in to the heart

    • Structure -  as the blood is at low pressure, the walls are not a thick as they do not
    • have to stretch as much.
    • In addition, Valves prevent backflow so blood is
    • forced back to the heart / lungs
  19. How is the structure of a Capillary suited to its function?
    Structure - Only one cell thick so allows easier gaseous exchange as very small distance to travel

    Function - This means that Oxygen can flow into the capillary and CO2 and waste products can flow out easier.
  20. What is the definition of Blood pressure?
    • The force that the blood exerts on
    • the blood vessels / artery walls
  21. What is Systolic Blood Pressure?
    A measure of pressure when the heart contracts, it is the top measure in a blood pressure reading e.g.

    • 120
    • 80
  22. What is Diastolic Blood Pressure?
    • A measure of pressure when the heart relaxes, it is the bottom measure in a blood pressure reading e.g.
    • 120
    • 80
  23. What is Resting Heart Rate?
    • The number of heartbeats
    • per minute when body is at rest
  24. What is Maximum Heart Rate?
    • The fastest that the heart is able to beat.
    • it is found using 220 - age
  25. What is recovery rate
    The time taken for the heart to return to RESTING HEART RATE
  26. Why is heart rate low at rest?
    At rest the body has it lowest demand on the circulatory system/lower demand for oxygen/less blood flow/less CO2 produced
  27. Why does Heart Rate increase during exercise?
    During exercise the body has it highest demand on the circulatory system/higher demand for oxygen/increased blood flow/more CO2 produced
  28. What are the immediate effects of exercise on the Cardiovascular system?
    • Heart
    • HR increases
    • SV increases
    • CO increases

    • Blood 
    • More O2 transferred to muscles
    • Waste products exit the body (CO2)

    • Blood Vessels
    • Blood pressure increases
    • Blood shunting occurs (Oxygen / heat)
  29. What are the Long Term Benefits of Exercise on the Cardiovascular system
    • Heart 
    • Heart stronger and bigger-
    • Cardiac Hypertrophy 
    • Lower resting heart rate /
    • Quicker recovery rate / return to RHR
    • Increased Maximal Cardiac Output 
    •  
    • Blood 
    • Can deliver more O2 (more haemoglobin)
    • More Red Blood Cells
    •  
    • Blood Vessels 
    • Decrease chance of coronary artery disease
    • Lower Blood Pressure
  30. How does L.D.L. (low density lipoprotein - Bad cholesterol) found in animal fats and butter - affect health?
    •Causes High Blood pressure

    •Narrows arteries

    •Increased chance of heart disease / Heart attack
  31. How does H.D.L (High density lipoprotein - Good cholesterol) found in nuts / sunflower oil  - affect health?
    • •HDL removes LDL
    • •Lowers Blood pressure
    • •Reduces chances of Heart disease
  32. How does Iron, that is found in liver and green vegetables affect the Cardiovascular system?
    • Increase haemoglobin level /
    • produce more Red blood cells

    Prevent anaemia
  33. What is the short term effect of smoking on the Cardiovascular System?
    Increases Hr and Blood Pressure
  34. What are the long term effect of smoking on the Cardiovascular System?
    Increase chance of heart attack /failure/CHD/heart disease/stroke/angina/blood clots

    Due to increased fatty deposits in the arteries
  35. How do the following performance enhancing drugs affect the Cardiovascular System?

    Beta Blockers
    cause a decrease in heart rate / SV /CO and lower blood pressure
  36. How do the following performance enhancing drugs affect the Cardiovascular System?

    Anabolic Steroids
    • cause a increase in Blood pressure and heart
    • disease / heart attacks
  37. How do the following performance enhancing drugs affect the Cardiovascular System?

    Peptide Hormones / EPO
    Increase Red Blood Cell production

    Can thicken the blood and cause Heart attacks
  38. How do the following performance enhancing drugs affect the Cardiovascular System?

    Stimulants
    Cause an increase in heart rate / SV /CO and increase Blood pressure

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