Study Notes for Final Exam (Elements of style

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Study Notes for Final Exam (Elements of style
2014-04-21 17:07:06
English 9
These study cards will help me pass my final in English
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  1. Figures of speech
    expressions that stretch words beyond their literal meanings. by connecting or juxtaposing (an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast) different sounds and thoughts, figures of speech increase the breadth and subtlety of expression.
  2. Alliteration
    The repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants, at the beginning of words, "sweet scented stuff"
  3. Anaphora
    Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of word groups occurring one after the other. In the Inferno, by Dante, the character Francesca uses the word"love" in the beginning of each phrase in order to lessen the effect of her own lustful sin.
  4. Aphorism
    Sometimes called maxims or proverbs, Short, often witty statement presenting an observation or a universal truth; an adage; "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely" (Lord Acton).
  5. Epithet:
    An adjective or phrase that describes a prominent feature of a person or things. "Richard 'the Lionheart', "Brave Achilles".
  6. Euphemism:
    The use of decorous language to express vulgar or unpleasant ideas, events, or actions."passed away" instead of "died": "ethnic cleansing" instead of "genocide;" "love" instead of "adultery."
  7. Hyperbole:
    Exaggeration; overstatement Exaggeratoin- to regard or represent as larger or greater, more important or more sucdessful, etc, than is true, as used by Vltaire in Candide.
  8. Faulty Logic:
    using unreasonable logic to prove a point. "We have noses, therefore we war glasses."
  9. Understatement:
    The act or an instance of stating something in estrained terms, or as less than it is. "The next day he drilled not quite so badly, and received only twenty strokes: the day after, he only had ten..." Candide, by Voltaire.
  10. Metaphor:
    The comparison of two unlike things without using the words "like" or "as". "Life is but a walking shadow, a poor player / That struts and frets his hour upon the stage" (Shakespeare, Macbeth).
  11. Paradox:
    A statement that seems absurd or even contradictory on its face but often expresses a deeper truth
  12. Personification:
    Giving humanlike qualities or human form to objects and abstractions like animals. Personification is sometimes a form or metaphor.
  13. Simile:
    A comparison to unlike things through the use of "like" or "as." "My first love is like a Red, Red Rose" (Robert Burns).
  14. Epic Simile:
    A lengthy comparison of two dissimilar things or ideas introduced by the word like or as.

    Homeric simile formula: Like an important image of something remote, So is a given representation of something at hand.
  15. Juxtaposition:
    an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.