# Research Methods II.2

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1. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 1
research hypothesis - an empirically testable statement derived from theory. It is stated in terms of the population. It holds for the whole population, but we only have a sample.
2. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 2
null hypothesis - the opposite of the research hypothesis given as a fixed value.
3. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 3
Assume the null - to derive a sampling distribution. A mathematical probability distribution, we do not find it empirically
4. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 4
Determine the critical region - 5% or less
5. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 5
Calculate a test (sample) statistic
6. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 8
Make a decision - infer about research hypothesis
7. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 6
One tailed test: a statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of the null hypothesis can be located at only one tail

Two Tailed Test: A statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of null hypothesis will be located at both left and right tails
8. Steps of Hypothesis Testing 7
• Type 1 Error: Rejecting a True Null
• Type 2 Error: Affirming a False Null
9. What is a significance level?
Probability of a type 1 error
10. What are confidence levels?
The probability that the value of a parameter falls within a specified range of values. Constructed with Z distributions.
11. Explain what happens to a sampling distribution as sample size increases and why this occurs.
As sample size increases sampling distribution decreases and vice versa. This occurs because there is a smaller chance of an error.
12. What is a PRE?
How much better can we estimate Y, the dependent variable, using X, than if we estimate Y by itself
13. Five Measures of Bivariate Association (description, associated levels, problems)
1. Lambda

2. Gamma

3. Kendall's Tau

4. "r squared"

5. "r" not PRE
14. Elaboration
For nonspurious bivariate relationships.

Usually involves the introduction of other variables to determine the links between the independent and dependent variables, or specification of the conditions under which association takes place.
15. What can happen when you control for a third variable in a bivariate relationship? (3 Things)
1. Nothing (Z has no effect)

2. The correlation between X and Y reduces drastically. This may mean: spuriousness OR Z is an intervening variable

3. The relationship between X and Y changes but does not disappear: then Z is a conditional variable
16. What is Lambda?
(PRE) measure of association for two nominal variables or 1 nominal+1 ordinal variable. Problem: it equals zero when the modes all fall in one value of the dependent variable. Then you use a percentage comparison instead.
17. What is Gamma?
(PRE) measure of association for two ordinal variables. Can be negative, varies from -1.00 to +1.00; Problem: it inflates the correlation because it doesn't include “ties"
18. Kendall's Tau?
A measure of association for two ordinal variables. It corrects the gamma problem by including “ties.” NOT a PRE
19. What is "r squared" for?
It is a PRE, scale of 0 to 1, for intervals and ratios
20. What is "r" (non-PRE)?
Uses a scale of -1 to 1, both assume linear relationship, for intervals and ratios
21. What factors are appropriate to consider in control and elaboration? (5)
• Demographics
• Time
• Place
• Interest
• Concern
22. Discuss the major issues in questionnaire construction (5 Things)
What do you want to know? What do you expect respondents to know?

Question Content: Fact or Opinion, wording, provide middle alternatives

Question Type: Closed vs Open-ended

Response Format for Closed-ended

Question order
23. 8 Considerations for evaluating a poll
1. Topic: is it something people know about?

2. Screen for non-attitudes – Did the organization give respondents middle alternatives?

3. Question wording: Did the organization give you the question wordings?

4. Question Order: Questions can be placed to lead respondents in certain ways

5. Sample definition: Probability sample? From what population?

6. Sub-sample sizes and error margins. What happens if certain demographics are pulled out? (error margin increases)

8. What's the spin?
Higher response rate

Can probe and clarify

Quick turnaround
High costs

Possible interviewer bias

No anonymity
Low cost

No interviewer bias

Greater anonymity

Considered responses
Lower Response Rate

Nobody there to clarify/probe

Takes time (opportunities for outside phenomena to interfere)
28. Secondary Analysis - Advantages (3)
Less expensive

May be the only source

You can replicate/triangulate someone else's research with your own
29. Secondary Analysis - Disadvantages (3)
May only approximate the data you want

May have hidden biases

Sometimes access is a problem
30. Focus Groups - Advantages (5)
Less prep time

Less expensive

Don’t need to construct a survey

With a survey you only get what you ask for

In depth information
31. Focus Groups - Disadvantages (3)
No external validity

Results open to interpretation

Demand characteristics: People know they are being recorded/films. So people may not want to state their true feelings

Dominant personalities
32. Issues of Ethics in Conducting Research (5)
Settings and procedures

Informed consent: full disclosure, individual comprehension, competence

Privacy: public/private settings

Confidentiality

Anonymity
33. 8 Steps of Hypothesis Testing
Research Hypothesis: an empirically testable statement derived from theory. It is stated in terms of the population. It holds for the whole population, but we only have a sample.

Null Hypothesis: the opposite of the research hypothesis given as a fixed value.

Assume the Null: to derive a sampling distribution. A mathematical probability distribution, we do not find it empirically

Determine the Critical Region: 5% or less

Calculate a test (sample) statistic

One and Two Tailed Tests: One tailed test: a statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of the null hypothesis can be located at only one tail. Two Tailed Test: A statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of null hypothesis will be located at both left and right tails

2 Error Types: Type I error is to rejecting a true null. Type II is failing to reject a false null.