Chapter 24 Soft-Tissue Injuries

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  1. Three types of soft-tissue injuries:
    • closed injuries
    • open injuries
    • burns
  2. When an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours and arterial blood flow is compromised, ____ ____ can develop.
    crush syndrome
  3. ____ ____ is significant metabolic derangement that can lead to renal failure and death.
    Crush syndrome
  4. -____ ____ results from the swelling that occurs whenever tissues are injured.
    -The cells that are injured leak watery fluid into the spaces between the cells.
    -The pressure of the fluid may become great enough to compress the tissue and cause further damage.
    -The hallmark sign is pain out of proportion to the injury.
    Compartment syndrome
  5. There are four types of open soft-tissue wounds:
    • Abrasions
    • Lacerations
    • Avulsions
    • Penetrating wounds
  6. A wound of the superficial layer of the skin, caused by friction when a body part rubs or scrapes across a rough or hard surface.
  7. Jagged cut caused by a sharp object or a blunt force that tears the tissue.
  8. Separates various layers of soft tissue (usually between the subcutaneous layer and fascia) so that they become either completely detached or hang as a flap.
  9. Damage is caused by the pressure of the explosion.
    Primary blast injury
  10. Damage results from flying debris.
    Secondary blast injury
  11. The victim is thrown by the explosion, perhaps into an object.
    Tertiary blast injury
  12. Treat a ____ soft-tissue injury using the RICES mnemonic:
    • closed
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevation
    • Splinting
  13. Often, you can better control bleeding from open soft-tissue wounds by ____ the extremity, even if there is no fracture.
  14. Cover an ____ wound with sterile gauze moistened with sterile saline solution.  Secure with an occlusive dressing.  Keep the organs moist and warm.
  15. Only remove an impaled object when the object is in the cheek and obstructs ____, or the object is in the chest and interferes with ____.
    • breathing
    • CPR
  16. If the veins of the neck are open to the environment, they may suck in air.  If enough air is sucked into a blood vessel, it can actually block the flow of blood in the lungs, sending the patient into cardiac arrest.  This condition is called:
    air embolism.
  17. Cover a ____ wound with an occlusive dressing to keep air from entering.
  18. Burns account for over ____ deaths a year.
  19. A burn victim is at a high risk for these four things:
    • Infection
    • Hypothermia
    • Hypovolemia
    • Shock
  20. Burns to the airway are of significant importance because the loose mucosa in the ____ can swell and lead to complete airway obstruction.
  21. Circumferential burns of the ____ can compromise breathing.
  22. Circumferential burns of the ____ can lead to neurovascular compromise and irreversible damage if not appropriately treated.
  23. Five factors will help you determine the severity of a burn (the first two factors are the most important):
    • What is the depth of the burn?
    • What is the extent of the burn?
    • Are any critical areas involved? Face, upper airway, hands, feet, genitalia
    • Does the patient have any preexisting medical conditions or other injuries?
    • Is the patient younger than 5 years or older than 55 years?
  24. With chemical burns, continue flooding the area with gallons of water for __ to __ minutes after the patient says the burning pain has stopped.
    15 to 20
  25. There are two dangers specifically associated with electrical burns:
    • There may be a large amount of deep tissue injury.
    • The patient may go into cardiac or respiratory arrest from the electric shock.
  26. Hot liquids produce ____ injuries.
  27. A ____ burn is produced by an explosion, which may briefly expose a person to very intense heat.  Lightning strikes can also cause a ____ burn.
  28. ____ injuries can occur when burning takes place in enclosed spaces without ventilation.
  29. Care for any toxic gas exposure includes these three things:
    • Recognition
    • Identification
    • Supportive treatment
  30. Most ionizing radiation accidents involve ____  radiation, or ____.
    • gamma
    • x-rays
  31. When patients have a radioactive source on their body, they are contaminated and must be initially cared for by a ____ responder.
  32. Classification of burns involves determining three things:
    • Source of the burn
    • Depth of the burn
    • Severity of the burn
  33. Provide hospital personnel with a these five pieces of information when transferring a burn victim:
    • description of how the burn occurred
    • extent of the burns
    • amount of body surface area involved
    • depth of the burn
    • location of the burn
  34. Your first responsibility in caring for a patient with a burn is to:
    stop the burning process and prevent additional injury.
  35. The skin covering the ____ is quite thick.
    A. lips
    B. ears
    C. eyelids
    D. scalp
    D. scalp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A(n) ____ is usually associated with extensive tissue damage.
    A. contusion
    B. hematoma
    C. crushing injury
    D. avulsion
    B. hematoma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. More extensive closed injuries may involve significant swelling and bleeding beneath the skin, which could lead to:
    A. hemothorax
    B. hypovolemic shock
    C. compartment syndrome
    D. contamination
    B. hypovolemic shock
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. ____ burns cause intense pain.
    A. first degree
    B. second degree
    C. superificial
    D. third degree
    B. second degree
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following should NOT be used as an occlusive dressing?
    A. aluminum foil
    B. gauze pads
    C. Vaseline gauze
    D. pastic
    B. gauze pads
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. During the primary assessment for burns, it is important to remember to:
    A. obtain vital signs
    B. estimate the amount of body surface injuries
    C. determine scene safety
    D. prevent heat loss
    D. prevent heat loss
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The fiber-like connective tissue that covers arteries, veins, tendons, and ligaments.
  42. With regard to the pediatric rule of nines, the:
    A. legs are proportionately smaller than an adult's.
    B. arms are proportionately larger than an adult's.
    C. head is proportionately smaller than an adult's.
    D. thorax is proportionately larger than an adult's.
    A. legs are proportionately smaller than an adult's.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. A 21-year-old male was working in an auto repair shop and sustained radiator burns to the anterior aspect of both arms and to his
    anterior chest.  According to the rule of nines, this patient has burns that cover _____ of his BSA.
    A. 36%
    B. 45%
    C. 27%
    D. 18%
    D. 18%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. According to the rule of nines, what percent is an entire adult arm?
  45. According to the rule of nines, what percent is the front of an adult torso?
  46. According to the rule of nines, what percent is the back of an adult torso?
  47. According to the rule of nines, what percent is the entire adult head?
  48. According to the rule of nines, what percent is the entire adult leg?
  49. According to the rule of nines, what percent is the adult genitalia?
  50. What two areas are different between a one year old and an adult in the rule of nines?  What are the percentages?
    • head is 18 percents instead of 9 percent
    • leg is 14 percent instead of 18 percent
  51. What is the rule of thumb for determining burn area in children over one year of age?
    For children over the age of one year, for each year above one, add 0.5% to each leg and subtract 1% for the head. This formula should be used until the adult rule of nines values are reached. For example, a 5-year old child would be +2% for each leg and -4% for the head.
  52. In the most severe cases, how much blood can a hematoma hold?
    A. a quart
    B. a pint
    C. a gallon
    D. a liter
    D. a liter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
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Chapter 24 Soft-Tissue Injuries
2014-04-24 20:38:06
Chapter 24 Soft Tissue Injuries

Chapter 24 Soft-Tissue Injuries
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