CH 6 Proteins

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  1. Proteins
    • Critical components of all tissues of the human body
    • Function in metabolism, immunity, fluid balance, nutrient transport
    • Bodies form 10,000-50,000 unique proteins (combinations of just 20 amino acids)
  2. Amino Acids
    • Building blocks that make proteins
    • Amine = nitrogen containing
  3. 20 Amino Acids
    • (9) Essential - bodies cannot produce adequate mounts to support physiologic needs
    • (11) Nonessential amino - body can create, do not need to consume in diet
  4. Transamination
    transfer the amino group from essential amino acid to different acid group and side chain
  5. Peptide bond
    2 amino acids + 1 amine group + 1 acid group = unique chemical bond, different groups grouping
  6. Dipeptide
    • amino acid + amino acid
    • amino acid x 3
    • amino acid x 4-9
    • amino acid x 10+
  7. Genetic Code
    • dictates differences in amino acid sequence - differences in our bodies protein (unique physical and physiological characteristics)
    • DNA dictates structure of protein made
  8. DNA in every cell nucleus
    • All cells contain the DNA to produce every protein
    • Not all are expressed
    • Each cell does not create every type of protein
    • Pancreas cells creates insulin gene
    • Our genetic make up and how accurately we express our genes are important to our health
  9. Bodies require production of proteins to function according
    • Make new proteins, break down existing proteins
    • Break down to provide building blocks for new protein
    • Process allows cells to respond to the constantly changing demands of the physiologic function of our bodies (ex: skin)
  10. Protein Structures
    • Primary - sequential order of the amino acids
    • Secondary - polypeptide chain that contains chemical characteristics that cuases the chain to twist and turn into a spiral
    • Tertiary - three dimensional chain created from the secondary structure
    • Quanternary - polypeptides bond to an even larger protein, shape of protein is important
  11. Protein organization (determines function)
    • Can only be altered by heat, acids, bases, alcohol, etc.
    • Denatured - changing the shape of a protein
    • Complete protein - contains all 9 essential amino acids
  12. Protein synthesis
    • limited by amino acids
    • limiting amino acid - missing amino acid, small supply
    • proper combo and quantity
    • proteins cannot be made
    • inadequate energy
  13. Cell growth, repair, maintenance
    • Dynamic! - constantly being broken down, repaired, replaced
    • Constant turnover - red blood cells made by marrow every 4 months
  14. Act as Enzymes and Hormones
    • Speed up chemical reactions but remain unaffected by the reaction
    • Can bind substances or break apart
    • Hormones - chemical messengers made from amino acids or lipids
  15. Maintain Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Electrolyte - electrically charged particles, fluid balance, sodium and potassium
    • Proteins attract fluids, keep fluids moving across spaces
  16. Maintain acid balance
    • Cellular processes result in constant production of acids and bases
    • Transported to be excreted
    • Body maintains tight control over pH (acidosis - blood too acidic / alkalosis - blood too acidic / can denature proteins)
  17. Maintain immune system
    • Antibodies - special proteins critical to the immune system, defense against foreign
    • Antigen = foreign
    • Immunity - body remembers antigen and produces antibodies
  18. Proteins serve as energy source
    • Efficient at recycling, protein needs are low
    • Deanimation - using proteins for energy (fat turned into glucose during starvation to provide energy neeed for the brain)
    • Important to eat adequate amounts
    • Too much protein, stored as fat
  19. Breakdown of Protein
    • Stomach: HCl acids and enzymes break protein into polypeptide
    • SMall intestine - break polypeptides into amino acids
    • Liver: amino acids converted to glucose or fat, combined to build new proteins, used for energy, released to bloodstream, transported to other cells
  20. Absorption of protein
    big dose of amino acid competes for same absorption site, competition can block absorption
  21. Diet low in protein?
    • Easily consume protein our bodies require by eating varied and adequate diet
    • Nitrogen balance = protein balance = intake/excretion
    • Most meed or exceed RDA need for protein
    • Not just in meat products (nuts, legumes, etc.)
  22. Vegetarianism
    • practice of restricting diet to foods of plant origin - 6-8 million adults
    • Vegan - no animal product - 2-3 million
  23. Flexitarian
    semivegetarians, occasionally eat meat, poultry, fish
  24. Vegetarian Diet
    • Fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, beans - every meal
    • Nuts, seeds, soy, dairy - daily
    • Eggs and sweets - weekly
    • 6 glass of water
    • Challenge: deficiencies
  25. Health issues associated with Protein
    • High intake: high cholesterol, bone loss, kidney disease
    • Low intake: marasmus "skin and bones", Kwashiorkor - look swollen especially in belly
Card Set:
CH 6 Proteins
2014-04-22 17:35:32
nutrition protein
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