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  1. herniated nucleus pulposus
    • the soft inner part nucelus pulposus of an intervertebral disk protrudes through the fibrous cartilage outer layer (annulus fibrosus) into the spinal canal, it can press on the spinal cord or nerves that cause pain and numbing on the extremities
    • narrowing of disk space between vertebra and protrusion of disk into spinal canal on ct or mr
  2. osteoarthritis
    degeneration of cartilage and formation of osteophytes
  3. osteoporosis
    bone density mineral loss
  4. scheuermanns disease
    mild kyphosis and or scoliosis most commonly involved with the thoracic curve
  5. spondylitis ankylosing
    what does it cause or form
    • systematic illness of unknown origin that involves the spine and larger joints, cause stiffening that is caused from inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, intervertebral disks and costovertebral
    • calcification with ossification (formation of bony ridges between vertebrae creating stiffness and lack of joint mobility
  6. spondylosis
    decreased intervertebral joint space foraminal stenosis
  7. transitional vertebra
    bony projections outgrowth extended laterally from transverse process
  8. spondylitis
    inflammation of the vertebrae
  9. what projection is used to rule out whiplash type injuries
    what is the sid
    • lateral positions hyperflexion and hyperextension
    • 72 in
  10. where is the cr lateral positions hyperflexion and hyperextension
    what is the position of the shoulders in each exam
    • c4 upper margin of thyroid cartilage
    • relax and depress shoulders down as far as possible
  11. how much hyper flexion is needed for this lat position
    how much hyper etension is needed
    what is the breathing for these two exams
    • until chin touches the chest or as far as patient can go
    • raise chin and tilt head back as much as possible without moving bacakward
    • suspend respiration on full expiration
  12. what position is used to view the dens if not clearly viewed in an ap open mouth
    what is the breathing for these exams
    • ap or pa fuchs and judd method c1 and c2
    • suspend respiration
  13. in the ap fuchs method where is the cr
    what structure is perp to tabletop
    what is mml
    • cr parallel to mml directed to inferior tip of the mandible
    • elevate chin to bring the mml near perp to tabletop
    • mentomeatal line (tip of chin to the ear opening should be clost to perp to tabletop )
  14. what structure is the dens visualized in the ap or pa judd and fuchs method
    foramen magnum
  15. in the pa judd method the patient is supine or prone
    where is the cr and position of the chin
    • prone
    • cr is parallel to mml through the midoccipital bone abt 1 in inferosuperior to mastoid tip and angles of mandible
    • the chin is resting on tabletop but slightly extended to brin mml near perp to table (may adjust cr)
  16. the ap wagging jaw is also known as
    otonello method
  17. where is the cr position of the structures for otonello method
    what is instructions for this
    what is the breathing
    • c4 at upper thyroid cartilage so upper incisor line is in a horizontal plane with the mastoid tips
    • after centering patient correctly the pt must move the lower mandible in a continous motion without moving the head or teeth coming into contact
    • suspend respiration
  18. for an ap axial projection vertebral arch (pillars) cspine where is cr and what is the angle
    what is the breathing and position of the neck
    • cr at c5 lower margin of thyroid cartilage (a bit below the adams apple)
    • 20-30 caudad angle
    • suspend respiration neck should be hyperextended if patient condition allows
  19. facets unilateral subluxation and bilateral locks
    • happens when a zyga joint is out of alignment with unilateral sublaxation the vertebral body looks like bowtie on a lateral position of the spine
    • bilateral:
    • caused by extreme flexion and distraction both left and right zyga joints on the same level can be disrupted creating bilateral locked facets
  20. in the pa judd method the the cr is perpendicular or parallel to the mml
    perpendicular to mml and table with patients chin down tucked
  21. in ap fuchs method the the mml and cr are prallel or perp to each other
    do you angle the tube
    the cr is angled to the line of the mml so they are parallel to each other
  22. in a swimmers projection where is the cr
    what is this method called
    • is at t1 an inch above jug notch
    • twinning method
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