Cartography final

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Author:
akatherine
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271475
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Cartography final
Updated:
2014-04-30 23:06:17
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cartography
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final exam review
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  1. Ranking of precision
    • 1-3       very good
    • 4-5       good
    • 6          fair
    • >6        suspect
  2. High delusion of precision
    • satellites close to each other
    • inaccurate data
  3. Low delusion of precision
    • satellites to be distributed
    • data more accurate
  4. Almanac information
    • Predicted orbits of the satellites by #
    • Stored in the satellites, downloaded as a code into the receivers
    • Takes 10-15 minutes to download the data when outside
    • Usually good for 2 months
  5. Time it takes for signal to travel to the receiver
    D = V x TΔ
  6. Multi-path errors
    • Usually comes in at a low angle
    • Would likely not be used in identifying location
  7. Color schemes
    • Different from color system
    • Applied in choropleth mapping
  8. Differential correction
    • ·        Requires 2 receivers
    • ·        NGS (national geographic survey)
    • ·        There is a network of points that have been accurately surveyed
    • ·        Points defined on a map, available online
    • ·        Usually associated with a building
    • ·        Know the exact X, Y, & Z coordinates
    • ·        Base station on most university campuses
    • ·        Constantly collects data for that known location
    • ·        Rover receiver collects unknown locations’ data
    • ·        Difference between a known true position to the position of Rover
    • ·        Will have a discrepancy error
    • ·        Identifies the difference between GPS position and the true position
    • ·        All airports have a base station
    • ·        Locations can be downloaded
  9. Dasymetric mapping
    • Limited variables
    • Related variables: relationship between the related variable and variable of interest is shown in a complex relationship
    • fractional form of density
  10. related variables
    • more complex relationship with the variable shown in the choropleth map
    • create a matrix breaking down the area into categories
    • each field in the matrix needs to be
  11. Tissot’s indicatrix
    • Circle with a radius of 1 unit
    • Plotted at intersection of latitude and longitude
    • If there is an increase in the area then the circle will be shown larger, if it decreases it will be smaller
    • Usually the center of the map has the least distortions
    • Robinson’s projection identifies that the
    • distortions are the least in the center of the map and increase the further out you go
  12. Tissot's indicatrix
  13. Map uncertainty
    • Probability bands
    • Three-dimensional draping of thematic information
  14. Cartographic generalization
    • Going from a large scale map to a smaller scale map, the small scale map includes much more detail than the large scale map
    • Generalization is the change from a detailed map to a general outline on a larger scale map (more detail)
    • Ex. A map of LSU will be more detailed than if looking at a map of BR where it will be displayed as a rectangle (generalized)
    • Douglas and Peucker routine came up with the first algorithm to smooth a linear feature when changing the scale of a map from smaller scale to a larger scale
    • Radical law: reduce the number of features when changing from a smaller scale map to a larger scale map
    • Exaggeration (2 & 7): Adjust symbology to be recognized on a smaller scale (less detail)
    • Displacement: a consequence of exaggeration
    • Aggregation: smaller symbols can be replaced with a smaller 1 building
    • Change in symbology: when scaled down
  15. Radical Law (Töpfer & Pillewizer, 1966)
    • a mathematical estimation of how many features should be maintained at smaller scales in the generalization process
    • Nf = the number of objects at the derived scale
    • Na =is the number of objects on the source material
    • Ma = scale denominator of source map
    • Mf = scale denominator of the derived map
  16. Douglas and Peucker routine
    • Defined a formula for smoothing
    • Identifying points along the line that you want to keep, which will be used to identified the  smoothed line
    • Iteration works with 3 most important points
    • Repeat process over and over until the perpendicular distance to the anchor line is shorter than a set threshold
  17. Iteration
    • Keep first and last points, which should be connected by a straight line (anchor line)
    • Find longest lines point away from the anchor line
    • Then split the line at the furthest point from the anchor line and apply the process again to each section
    • Define a threshold distance as to how far from the anchor line to stop detailing
    • The less points the smoother the line
    • The more points the less smooth the line
    • Repeat process over and over until the perpendicular distance
  18. Electromagnetic spectrum
    the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
  19. Properties of color
    • wavelengths are measured in nanometers
    • For the human eye the colors with the most contrast to each other are across from each other on the color wheel
  20. Spectral reflectance curves
    • Spectrophotometer: a device you put on an object that will identify the spectral reflectance curves
    • When lights hit a white wall most of the light will be reflected, thus the color white
    • On a dark surface more light is absorbed and minimal is reflected
    • Hue can be identified with the dominant wave length in the graph chart
    • Since saturation is not well enough understood component and therefore not used as much in mapping
  21. Types of colors
    • Additive colors mixed = white (RGB)
    • Subtractive colors mixed = black (CMYK)
  22. Color systems
    • CMYK: Starts with a white background
    • RGB: Starts with a black background
    • CIE: (3 french words) Hue, value & saturation
    • Munsell: used by geologists and archaeologists
  23. Munsell color system
    • Primary color = One capital letter
    • Secondary colors = Two capital letters
    • Color value = North pole to south pole
    • Chroma increases by even numbers up to 14
  24. kernel functions in CrimeStat
    • Normal Popular: Uses normal distribution curve rotated around the central vertical curve
    • Triangular: Uses a right triangle that is rotating around the central axis, looks like a cone
    • Quartic: Popular type, uses Inverse U (parabola) rotated
    • Negative exponential: Rotating hyperbole resembling a funnel
    • Uniform Rectangle: rotated = cylinder
  25. 2 frequencies used for information services
    • SPS: Standard Positioning Service
    • PPS: Precise Positioning Service
  26. Geodetic coordinate system
    • Identifies: shape of the earth
    • Ellipsoid: is the most accurate; they are different based on the region where the data is collected
    • Gravimetric: varies based on the surface level
    • Ex: mountains & oceans will make a difference
    • h=H+N
    • H: Orthometric height referenced to the GoID
    • h: Geodetic height, measured from Ellipsoid
    • N: Distance from Ellipsoid to Geoid Can be positive or negative
  27. UTM system
    Universal transverse Mercator grid system
  28. NGS
    • national geographic survey
    • There is a network of points that have been accurately surveyed
    • Points defined on a map, available online
    • Usually associated with a building
    • Know the exact X, Y, & Z coordinates
    • Base station on most university campuses
    • Constantly collects data for that known location
    • Rover receiver collects unknown locations' data
    •    - Difference between a known true position to the position of Rover
    •    - Will have a discrepancy error
    •    - Identifies the difference between GPS position and the true position
    • All airports have a base station
    • Locations can be downloaded
  29. Mission planning data
    • How many satellites available
    • Delusion precision
    • Each satellite has a number assigned to it, that can be identified as to its position
  30. How does GPS work?
    • It's a distance/ranging system
    • Operates on the Principal of Trilateration
    • Satellites transmit unique radio waves
    • Receivers passively receive SV signal
    • Receivers measure time for signal to reach it
    • distance computed via D = V x TΔ
    • V = C= 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec)
  31. Geodetic coordinate system
    • Identifies shape of the earth
    • Ellipsoid is the most accurate; they are different based on the region where the data is collected Gravimetric varies based on the surface level
    • Ex: mountains & oceans will make a difference
    • h=H+N
    • H: Orthometric height referenced to the Gold h: Ellipsoldal height
  32. Different map schemes
    • Qualitative scheme
    • Binary scheme
    • Sequential scheme
  33. Variations of sequential schemes
    • On hue: only the hue changes
    • On hue transition: changes from one color to another
    • On hue steps: transitions via combined lightness and hue steps
  34. Describe the steps of Douglas Peuker routine
  35. Qualitative scheme with 3 hues
  36. Binary scheme
  37. Sequential scheme
  38. Diverging/Binary scheme
  39. Diverging/Sequential scheme
  40. Diverging/Diverging scheme

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