# Cartography final

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 Author: akatherine ID: 271475 Filename: Cartography final Updated: 2014-04-30 23:06:17 Tags: cartography Folders: Description: final exam review Show Answers:

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1. Ranking of precision
• 1-3       very good
• 4-5       good
• 6          fair
• >6        suspect
2. High delusion of precision
• satellites close to each other
• inaccurate data
3. Low delusion of precision
• satellites to be distributed
• data more accurate
4. Almanac information
• Predicted orbits of the satellites by #
• Stored in the satellites, downloaded as a code into the receivers
• Takes 10-15 minutes to download the data when outside
• Usually good for 2 months
5. Time it takes for signal to travel to the receiver
D = V x TΔ
6. Multi-path errors
• Usually comes in at a low angle
• Would likely not be used in identifying location
7. Color schemes
• Different from color system
• Applied in choropleth mapping
8. Differential correction
• ·        Requires 2 receivers
• ·        NGS (national geographic survey)
• ·        There is a network of points that have been accurately surveyed
• ·        Points defined on a map, available online
• ·        Usually associated with a building
• ·        Know the exact X, Y, & Z coordinates
• ·        Base station on most university campuses
• ·        Constantly collects data for that known location
• ·        Rover receiver collects unknown locations’ data
• ·        Difference between a known true position to the position of Rover
• ·        Will have a discrepancy error
• ·        Identifies the difference between GPS position and the true position
• ·        All airports have a base station
9. Dasymetric mapping
• Limited variables
• Related variables: relationship between the related variable and variable of interest is shown in a complex relationship
• fractional form of density
10. related variables
• more complex relationship with the variable shown in the choropleth map
• create a matrix breaking down the area into categories
• each field in the matrix needs to be
11. Tissot’s indicatrix
• Circle with a radius of 1 unit
• Plotted at intersection of latitude and longitude
• If there is an increase in the area then the circle will be shown larger, if it decreases it will be smaller
• Usually the center of the map has the least distortions
• Robinson’s projection identifies that the
• distortions are the least in the center of the map and increase the further out you go
12. Tissot's indicatrix
13. Map uncertainty
• Probability bands
• Three-dimensional draping of thematic information
14. Cartographic generalization
• Going from a large scale map to a smaller scale map, the small scale map includes much more detail than the large scale map
• Generalization is the change from a detailed map to a general outline on a larger scale map (more detail)
• Ex. A map of LSU will be more detailed than if looking at a map of BR where it will be displayed as a rectangle (generalized)
• Douglas and Peucker routine came up with the first algorithm to smooth a linear feature when changing the scale of a map from smaller scale to a larger scale
• Radical law: reduce the number of features when changing from a smaller scale map to a larger scale map
• Exaggeration (2 & 7): Adjust symbology to be recognized on a smaller scale (less detail)
• Displacement: a consequence of exaggeration
• Aggregation: smaller symbols can be replaced with a smaller 1 building
• Change in symbology: when scaled down
15. Radical Law (Töpfer & Pillewizer, 1966)
• a mathematical estimation of how many features should be maintained at smaller scales in the generalization process
• Nf = the number of objects at the derived scale
• Na =is the number of objects on the source material
• Ma = scale denominator of source map
• Mf = scale denominator of the derived map
16. Douglas and Peucker routine
• Defined a formula for smoothing
• Identifying points along the line that you want to keep, which will be used to identified the  smoothed line
• Iteration works with 3 most important points
• Repeat process over and over until the perpendicular distance to the anchor line is shorter than a set threshold
17. Iteration
• Keep first and last points, which should be connected by a straight line (anchor line)
• Find longest lines point away from the anchor line
• Then split the line at the furthest point from the anchor line and apply the process again to each section
• Define a threshold distance as to how far from the anchor line to stop detailing
• The less points the smoother the line
• The more points the less smooth the line
• Repeat process over and over until the perpendicular distance
18. Electromagnetic spectrum
the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
19. Properties of color
• wavelengths are measured in nanometers
• For the human eye the colors with the most contrast to each other are across from each other on the color wheel
20. Spectral reflectance curves
• Spectrophotometer: a device you put on an object that will identify the spectral reflectance curves
• When lights hit a white wall most of the light will be reflected, thus the color white
• On a dark surface more light is absorbed and minimal is reflected
• Hue can be identified with the dominant wave length in the graph chart
• Since saturation is not well enough understood component and therefore not used as much in mapping
21. Types of colors
• Additive colors mixed = white (RGB)
• Subtractive colors mixed = black (CMYK)
22. Color systems
• CMYK: Starts with a white background
• RGB: Starts with a black background
• CIE: (3 french words) Hue, value & saturation
• Munsell: used by geologists and archaeologists
23. Munsell color system
• Primary color = One capital letter
• Secondary colors = Two capital letters
• Color value = North pole to south pole
• Chroma increases by even numbers up to 14
24. kernel functions in CrimeStat
• Normal Popular: Uses normal distribution curve rotated around the central vertical curve
• Triangular: Uses a right triangle that is rotating around the central axis, looks like a cone
• Quartic: Popular type, uses Inverse U (parabola) rotated
• Negative exponential: Rotating hyperbole resembling a funnel
• Uniform Rectangle: rotated = cylinder
25. 2 frequencies used for information services
• SPS: Standard Positioning Service
• PPS: Precise Positioning Service
26. Geodetic coordinate system
• Identifies: shape of the earth
• Ellipsoid: is the most accurate; they are different based on the region where the data is collected
• Gravimetric: varies based on the surface level
• Ex: mountains & oceans will make a difference
• h=H+N
• H: Orthometric height referenced to the GoID
• h: Geodetic height, measured from Ellipsoid
• N: Distance from Ellipsoid to Geoid Can be positive or negative
27. UTM system
Universal transverse Mercator grid system
28. NGS
• national geographic survey
• There is a network of points that have been accurately surveyed
• Points defined on a map, available online
• Usually associated with a building
• Know the exact X, Y, & Z coordinates
• Base station on most university campuses
• Constantly collects data for that known location
• Rover receiver collects unknown locations' data
•    - Difference between a known true position to the position of Rover
•    - Will have a discrepancy error
•    - Identifies the difference between GPS position and the true position
• All airports have a base station
29. Mission planning data
• How many satellites available
• Delusion precision
• Each satellite has a number assigned to it, that can be identified as to its position
30. How does GPS work?
• It's a distance/ranging system
• Operates on the Principal of Trilateration
• Satellites transmit unique radio waves
• Receivers measure time for signal to reach it
• distance computed via D = V x TΔ
• V = C= 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec)
31. Geodetic coordinate system
• Identifies shape of the earth
• Ellipsoid is the most accurate; they are different based on the region where the data is collected Gravimetric varies based on the surface level
• Ex: mountains & oceans will make a difference
• h=H+N
• H: Orthometric height referenced to the Gold h: Ellipsoldal height
32. Different map schemes
• Qualitative scheme
• Binary scheme
• Sequential scheme
33. Variations of sequential schemes
• On hue: only the hue changes
• On hue transition: changes from one color to another
• On hue steps: transitions via combined lightness and hue steps
34. Describe the steps of Douglas Peuker routine
35. Qualitative scheme with 3 hues
36. Binary scheme
37. Sequential scheme
38. Diverging/Binary scheme
39. Diverging/Sequential scheme
40. Diverging/Diverging scheme

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