Studies of impression formation show that information about negative traits and behaviors contributes more to how we think about other than does positive information.
Posttraumatic growth (PTG)
A counterpart to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Positive growth can occur as a result of traumatic experiences.
Measures of subjective well-being
Assess a person's level of life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotional experiences.
The disease model
Psychology focused on treating illness, rather than building strengths.
The emphasis on understanding the determinants of happiness as a desired state.
An aspect of happiness focused on active involvement in activities and relationships with others that express our talents and strengths.
An aspect of happiness that derives from going beyond our own self-interests and preoccupations. Being involved in something larger than yourself.
Information about how many people are suffering from significant problems that diminish the quality of their lives.
A state of distress and despair, not severe enough to meet current mental illness criteria.
self-realization - a process in which our talents, needs, and deeply held values direct the way we conduct our lives. Realizing our potentials!
Personal happiness and pleasure with the perspective being focused on the exterior, rather than the interior or mind.
A summary term for pleasurable emotions such as joy, contentment, laughter, and love.
From the point of view of the individual.
Three components of SWB
Life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Life satisfaction is a cognitive judgment concerning how satisfied a person is with his or her life. The emotional components refer to peoples/ feelings about their lives.
Trained coders can distinguished a genuine, authentic smile from on that is forced or unauthentic.
Global judgments predicted by the peak of emotional intensity during an experience and the ending emotional intensity.
Experience sampling methods (ESM)
A variety of measures that provide a "day-in-the-life" view of emotions and events in people's lives.
Day reconstruction method (DRM)
Combines the accuracy of real-time measures with the efficiency of daily diaries. People are asked to think of their day's events as a sequence of episodes or scenes in a film.
An overall summary judgment of well-being, which is likely to be sensitive personality traits and less sensitive to the current state of an individual.
Self-determination theory (SDT)
Well-being and happiness result from the fulfillment of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Activities and concerns that people have in their lives. For example, "completing my English exam" and "getting more outdoor exercise".
The things you are typically or characteristically trying to do in your everyday behavior. For example, "trying to persuade others one is right" and "trying to help others in need of help".
Goal organization (hierarchy)
Goals can be arranged in a hierarchy with general, more abstract, and "higher-order" goals at the top and more concrete, specific, and "lower-order" goals at the bottom.
Nomothetic goal models
Describing universal needs, values, and goals shared by most people.
Idiographic goal models
Focused on the unique ordering of goals by particular individuals.
Desirable states that function as general guides or principles of living. They describe broad and general goals that may motivate a wide range of behaviors.
Values are conceived as cognitive representations of three universal requirements for human existence: biological needs of the individual, needs for coordinated social interactions, and needs related to the welfare of groups and social interactions.
Defined by their connection to important psychological needs that are assumed to make their pursuit and fulfillment inherently satisfying.
Desires for external rewards or praise and admiration from others and are assumed to be less inherently or deeply satisfying when pursued or attained.
All the potential futures that we can imagine for ourselves.
A way of sorting out which goals lead to increased well-being and which do not. It suggests that the degree of person-goal fit determines the effect of goal progress and goal achievement on well-being.
Describes how the reasons behind goal pursuit are critical to well-being outcomes. Pursuing goals for the "right" reasons leads to better goal achievement and personal adjustment.
Freely chosen reasons for goal pursuit that generate feelings of ownership and personal expressiveness.
Refers to cases in which people pursue goals that they have not freely chosen, or that are not personally expressive.
Negative emotions we may experience if we don't try to attain certain goals.
Valuing a goal because of its personal importance, though people may sometimes come to value a goal because of the influence of others.
Emotional pleasure and enjoyment derived from pursuing a goal.
Terror management theory
How fear of death motivates attempts to restore a sense of safety and security. Predicts that confronting thoughts or images of death creates feelings of insecurity that motivate a defensive strengthening of worldviews and self-esteem, in order to restore a sense of security.
Attempts to change and mold the external environment to fit the needs and goals of the self.
The emphasis is on changing the self to fit the external environment.
People's ability to initiate and guide their actions toward the achievement of a desired future goal.
Highlights how people use goals as references for directing and regulating action over time. Based on "feedback loops" that are used to control some process relative to a given reference point. Feedback loop (test, operate, test, and exit). Efforts are focused on reducing the discrepancy between the current state and a future goal.
Self-regulation is directed by "self-guides," which involve comparisons between the actual self, the ideal self, and the "ought self". The magnitude of the dicrepancies between the actual self, ideal self, and ought self are the bases for positive and negative emotions.
Our desire to achieve a certain outcome.
Define our plan of action by specifying the exact steps necessary to achieve the goal.
The belief in one's competence to produce desirable outcomes through one's own efforts.
Positive outcomes that people hope to move toward, or maintain (e.g., get along better with a roommate, stay physically fit).
Are negative outcomes that people hope to avoid, or prevent (e.g., stop arguing with a roommate, avoid gaining weight).
Cases where the pursuit of one goal at the same time enhances the odds of success in achieving another goal.
Action identification theory
Any action can be identified at more than one level. Lower-order levels refer to how something is done in terms of the concrete and specific behaviors involved. Higher-order levels refer to why an action is carried out in terms of more abstract and general reasons.
Ironic effects of mental control
Offer one explanation for paradoxes of self control - when the more we try, the worse it gets.
Triangle model of responsibility
Describes how we evaluate the legitimacy of excuses. Focuses on our judgments of responsibility. The three components of this model are prescriptive clarity, personal obligation, and personal control.
The rules, goals, procedures, and standards that are relevant to an event, which describe what should be done, and how.
Describes the extent to which a person is required, expected, or duty-bound to follow the prescriptions or rules of conduct.
Refers to the amount of control a person has over the outcome of the event in question.
Refers to a psychological separation between the self and the situation, event, or object. Creating distance rather than acting in the moment often pay big dividends in the form of better decisions and improved self-control.