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  1. eyebrow
    shade the eye, keep dust and perspiration out of eyes
  2. eyelashes
    protect eyes by initiating blinking when touched and keeping out dust
  3. eyelids (palpebrae)
    blinking protect the eyes from debris and bright light and spreads fluid over the ye that keeps the eye from drying out
  4. palpebral fissure
    space between the eyelids that allows light to enter the eye when the eyelids are open
  5. medial and lateral commissures (canthii)
    location where the upper and lower eyelids meet medially and laterally
  6. lacrimal caruncle
    contains sebaceous and sweat glands
  7. tarsal (meibomian) glands
    produce a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the eyelids from sticking together
  8. conjunctiva
    a transparent protective membrane of stratified squamous epithelium. produces a lubricating mucus that prevents the eyelids from drying out
  9. palpebral conjunctiva
    lines the posterior surface of eyelids
  10. ocular (bulbar) conjunctiva
    lines the sclera (white of the eye) on the anterior surface of the eyeball
  11. lacrimal glands
    releasees a saline solution called lacrimal secretion (tears) that protects and moistens the eye. contains mucus, antibodies, and lysozymes
  12. Which 4 structures collectively drain tears from the eye into the nasal cavity?
    • lacrimal puncta 
    • lacrimal canaliculi 
    • lacrimal sac
    • nasolacrimal duct
  13. extrinsic eye muscles
    hold eyeball in eye socket, help maintain eyeball shape, and produce eye movement
  14. lens
    focuses light on the retina of the eye
  15. fibrous tunic
    outermost layer of dense connective tissue. protects the eyeball
  16. sclera
    covers all but the anterior-most part of the eyeball; is continuous with the dura mater of the brain
  17. cornea
    transparent layer that covers the anterior-most sixth of the eyeball
  18. vascular tunic (uvea)
    intermediate layer of the eyeball
  19. choroid
    highly vascularized layer that lines posterior of eyeball; dark melanin pigments prevent light from being scattered
  20. ciliary body
    smooth muscles that control lens shape; connected to lens by suspensory ligaments; also produces the aqueous humor
  21. iris
    anterior-most portion of uvea; composed of smooth muscles that regulate the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil
  22. neural tunic
  23. pigmental layer
    lines the entire posterior cavity; prevents scattering of light and has cells that act as phagocytes and store vitamin A
  24. neural layer
    layer on surface of posterior cavity that is actually responsible for vision; extends anteriorly to the ora serrata
  25. rods
    photoreceptors that respond to dim light and are responsible for peripheral vision; do not see color
  26. cones
    photoreceptors that respond to bright light and are responsible for high definition color vision
  27. macula lutea
    area at posterior of eyeball containing a very high concentration of cones
  28. fovea centralis
    area at center of macula lutea with the highest concentration of cones and the sharpest vision
  29. bipolar cells/ganglion cells
    transmit visual signals toward the brain
  30. horizontal cells/amacrine cells
    facilitate or inhibit communication between photoreceptors and ganglion cells to adjust contrast of image sent to brain
  31. optic disc
    blind spot that has no photoreceptors; location where the optic nerve originates and where the blood supply enters the brain
  32. posterior cavity
    area posterior to the lens; filled with clear vitreous humor 
  33. vitreous humor
    supports posterior surface of lens, and holds retina in place
  34. anterior cavity
    area anterior to the lens; filled with clear aqueous humor; divided into a posterior and anterior chamber by the iris
  35. aqueous humor
    creates the intraocular pressure of the eye; supplies nutrients to, and removes waste from, the lens and cornea
  36. canal of schlemm
    drains excess aqueous humor from anterior cavity of eye
  37. auricle (pinna)
    direct sound waves to the external acoustic canal
  38. external acoustic canal
    passageway for sound to reach the middle ear
  39. tympanic membrane (eardrum)
    vibrates when hit by sound waves from the external acoustic canal; transmits the sound energy to the middle ear
  40. middle ear
    tympanic cavity
  41. oval (vestibular) window
    covered by the stapes; allows transmission of sound energy from the stapes of the middle ear to the inner ear
  42. round (cochlear) window
    covered by the secondary tympanic membrane; acts as an outlet for pressure waves created in the fluid of the inner ear by movement of the stapes in response to sound
  43. mastoid air cells
    enhance or inhibit reception of sound waves depending on wavelengths and the resonance of the air cells; help regulate air pressure in the middle ear; lighten the skull
  44. pharyngotympanic tubes (auditory or eustachian)
    connect the middle ear to the nasopharynx; allow equilibration of pressure between the environment and the middle ear
  45. 3 bones of the middle ear
    • malleus (hammer)
    • incus (anvil)
    • stapes (stirrups)
  46. function of the 3 bones of the middle ear
    collectively, transmit sound from the tympanic membrane of the external ear to the oval window which opens to the inner ear
  47. 2 muscles of the middle ear
    • tensor tympani 
    • stapedius
  48. function of he 2 muscles of the middle ear
    hold the bones of the middle ear in place and modify the ability of the bones to transmit sound (help dampen loud noises)
  49. inner ear
  50. vestibule (2)
    • saccule 
    • utricle 
    • membranous sacs within the vestibule containing maculae that detects gravity and changes in linear motion
  51. semicircular canals (3)
    • anterior 
    • posterior 
    • lateral
    • canals oriented on different axes; contain crista ampullares that detect changes in angular motion
  52. cochlea (3)
    • vestibular duct 
    • tympanic duct 
    • cochlear duct 
    • a network of ducts that transmits pressure waves caused by sound to the organ of corti which is responsible for hearing
Card Set
grey boxes from lab 16 eyes and nose
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