Chapter 14 Vocab

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Gesyca_is_joy
ID:
271540
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Chapter 14 Vocab
Updated:
2014-04-22 20:29:03
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CHEM 1405
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Chemistry
Description:
Acids, Bases and Salts
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  1. Arrhenius Acid
    A hydrogen containing compound that, in water, produces Hydrogen ions (H+)
  2. Arrhenius Base
    A hydroxide-ion containing compound that, in water, produces hydroxide ions (OH-)
  3. Ionization
    A process whereby ions are produced from a molecular compound when it is dissolved in a solvent
  4. Dissociation
    A process whereby already existent ions in an ionic compound separate when the ionic compound is dissolved in a solvent
  5. Bronsted-Lowry Acid
    Any substance that can donate a proton (H+) to some other substance
  6. Bronsted-Lowry base
    Any substance that can accept a proton (H+) from some other substance
  7. Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
    Two species, one an acid and one a base, that differ from each other through the loss or gain of a proton (H+ ion)

    The acid will always have one more H atom and one less negative charge than the base.

    The base will always have one less H atom and one more negative charge than the base.
  8. Conjugate Acid
    the species formed when a proton (H+ ion) is added to a Bronsted-Lowry base
  9. Conjugate Base
    the species that remains when a proton (H+ ion) is removed from a Bronsted-Lowry acid
  10. Amphiprotic Substance
    A substance that can either lose or accept a proton (H+ ion) and thus can function as either an acid or a base.
  11. Monoprotic Acid
    An acid that can transfer only one H ion per molecule during an acid-base reaction.
  12. Diprotic Acid
    An acid that can transfer two H ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction.
  13. Triprotic Acid
    An acid that can transfer three H ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction.
  14. Polyprotic Acid
    An acid that can transfer two or more H ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction.
  15. Acidic Hydrogen Atom
    A hydrogen atom in an acid that can be transferred to a base during an acid-base reaction
  16. Strong Acid
    an Acid that, in an aqueous solution, transfers 100% or nearly 100% of it's acidic hydrogen atoms to water
  17. Weak Acid
    an Acid that, in an aqueous solution, transfers only a small percentage of it's acidic hydrogen atoms to water
  18. Salt
    An Ionic compound containing a metal ion or polyatomic ion as the positive ion and a nonmetal ion or polyatomic ion (except hydroxide) as the negative ion
  19. Neutralization
    the reaction between and acid and a hydroxide base to form a salt and water.

    Neutralization is a double replacement reaction
  20. Acidic Solution
    A solution in which the concentration of H3O+ ion is greater than that of OH-
  21. Basic Solution
    A solution in which the concentration of H3O+ ion is less than that of OH-
  22. Neutral Solution
    A solution in which the concentration of H3O+ and OH- are equal
  23. pH Scale
    a scale of small numbers that is used to specify molar hydronium concentration in an aqueous solution

    pH = -log[H30+]
  24. Hydrolysis
    The reaction of a substance with water to produce hydronium and/or hydroxide ions
  25. Buffer
    A solution that resists major changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added to it. Typically, a conjugate acid-base pair
  26. Acid-Base Tritation
    A procedure in which a measured volume of acid or base of known concentration is exactly reacted with a measured volume of acid or base of unknown concentration
  27. Indicator
    a compound that exhibits different colors, depending on the pH of its surroundings

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