Plant Biology

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Author:
Dienekes
ID:
271550
Filename:
Plant Biology
Updated:
2014-04-22 21:57:07
Tags:
Plants Fungi Plant Form Function Reproduction Development
Folders:
Biology
Description:
Able to convert sunlight energy into biological molecules using just water and carbon dioxide, plants came to dominate the terrestrial ecosystems after evolving from green algae. They account for the majority of the biomass on land, diversifying in countless ways. The fungi, sometimes confused with plants due to their non-motile lifestyle, are actually more closely related to animals than plants and can interact with other organisms in ways that can be harmful or helpful.
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  1. Of seed plants, chamber inside which megaspores form and develop into female
    gametophytes; after fertilization this chamber becomes a seed.
    Ovules
  2. Seed plant that produces “naked” seeds, which are not encased by a fruit.
    Gymnosperms
  3. Vascular tissue that distributes water and dissolved mineral ions.
    Xylem
  4. Fungus–plant root partnership.
    Mycorrhiza
  5. Animal that moves pollen from one plant to another, thus facilitating pollination.
    Pollinators
  6. Of seed plants, chamber in which microspores form and develop into male gametophytes (pollen grains).
    Pollen sac
  7. Secreted covering at a body surface.
    Cuticle
  8. Pollen-receiving part of a carpel.
    Stigma
  9. Cluster of spore-forming chambers on a fern frond.
    Sori
  10. Diploid spore-forming body that forms in a plant life cycle.
    Sporophyte
  11. Stem that grows horizontally along or just below the ground.
    Rhizomes
  12. Spore-producing heterotroph with cell walls of chitin that feeds by extracellular digestion and absorption.
    Fungi
  13. Male gametophyte of a seed plant.
    Pollen grain
  14. Composite organism consisting of a fungus and a single-celled photosynthetic alga or bacterium.
    Lichens
  15. Part of the stamen that contains pollen sacs.
    Anther
  16. Mature ovary tissue that encloses a seed or seeds.
    Fruit
  17. Multicelled, photosynthetic organism; develops from an embryo that forms on the parent and is nourished by it.
    Plants
  18. Lineage of angiosperms that includes grasses, orchids, and palms.
    Monocots
  19. Species interaction that benefits both species.
    Mutualisms
  20. Largest lineage of angiosperms; includes herbaceous plants, woody trees, and cacti.
    Eudicots
  21. Ovule-containing part of a flower.
    Carpel
  22. Cone-bearing gymnosperm such as a pine.
    Conifers
  23. Seed plant that produces flowers and fruits.
    Angiosperms
  24. A single filament in a fungal mycelium.
    Hypha
  25. Vascular tissue that distributes dissolved sugars.
    Phloem
  26. A plant that has xylem and phloem.
    Vascular plants
  27. Plant that grows on the trunk or branches of another plant but does not harm it.
    Epiphytes
  28. Of flowering plants, a floral chamber that holds one or more ovules.
    Ovary
  29. Compound that stiffens walls of some cells (including xylem) in vascular plants.
    Lignin
  30. Most diverse group of bryophytes (nonvascular plants). Low-growing plants with flagellated sperm disperse by producing spores.
    Mosses
  31. Elongated portion of a carpel that holds the stigma above the ovary.
    Style
  32. Haploid gamete-forming body that forms in a plant life cycle.
    Gametophyte
  33. Most diverse lineage of seedless vascular plants.
    Ferns
  34. Adjustable pores in a plant cuticle.
    Stomata
  35. Mass of threadlike filaments (hyphae) that make up the body of a multicelled fungus.
    Mycelium
  36. Member of an early evolving plant lineage that does not have vascular tissue; for example, a moss.
    Bryophytes
  37. In flowering plants, one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming the zygote, and another fertilizes a diploid cell, forming what will become endosperm.
    Double fertilization
  38. Delivery of pollen to female part of a plant.
    Pollination
  39. Lignin-stiffened secondary growth of some seed plants.
    Wood
  40. Increase in diameter of a plant part.
    Secondary growth
  41. In seed plants, a haploid cell that gives rise to a female gametophyte.
    Megaspore
  42. Nutritive tissue in an angiosperm seed.
    Endosperm
  43. Pollen-producing part of a flower. Consists of an anther that contains pollen sacs, atop a filament.
    Stamens
  44. In seed plants, a haploid cell that gives rise to a male gametophyte (pollen grain).
    Microspores
  45. Embryo sporophyte of a seed-bearing plant packaged with nutritive tissue inside a protective coat.
    Seed
  46. Specialized reproductive shoot of a flowering plant.
    Flower
  47. Wheat-stem rust spreads via

    A. Mammal vectors
    B. Wind
    C. Insect vectors
    D. Bird vectors
    E. Water
    B. Wind
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Wheat-stem rust is a(an)

    A. Virus
    B. Protist
    C. Fungus
    D. Archaea
    E. Bacterium
    C. Fungus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which of the following stages in the plant life cycle is diploid?

    A. Sporophyte
    B. None of these
    C. Gametophyte
    D. Spores
    E. Gametes
    A. Sporophyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Gas exchange in land plants is facilitated by

    A. Xylem
    B. Lignin
    C. Phloem
    D. Cuticle
    E. Stomata
    E. Stomata
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following is not true of mosses?

    A. The sporophyte depends on the gametophyte.
    B. They lack vascular tissue.
    C. They cannot reproduce sexually.
    D. They have a haploid-dominant life cycle.
    E. There are about 14 000 species.
    C. They cannot reproduce sexually.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following are most closely related to vascular plants?

    A. Hornworts
    B. Red algae
    C. Liverworts
    D. Green algae
    E. Mosses
    A. Hornworts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Ferns do not have

    A. Lignin
    B. A sporophyte stage
    C. A gametophyte stage
    D. Seeds
    E. Vascular tissue
    D. Seeds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Coal is largely the remains of

    A. Angiosperms
    B. Ferns
    C. Club mosses
    D. Algae
    E. Conifers
    C. Club mosses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. How many pollen grains are made in a pollen sac?

    A. 8
    B. 3
    C. 2
    D. 4
    E. 1
    D. 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The process of pollination leads to the production of a(an)

    A. Microspore
    B. Seed
    C. Ovule
    D. Male gametophyte
    E. Megaspore
    B. Seed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Which of the following is not true of gymnosperms?

    A. They can be very tall.
    B. They have naked seeds.
    C. They make fruits.
    D. Ginkgos are an example.
    E. They can be very old.
    C. They make fruits.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Conifers disperse their pollen via

    A. None of these
    B. Insect vectors
    C. Bird vectors
    D. Wind
    E. Mammal vectors
    D. Wind
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Which of the following is a "male" flower part?

    A. Carpel
    B. Anther
    C. Ovary
    D. Style
    E. Stigma
    B. Anther
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which of the following is not a potential role of angiosperm fruits?

    A. Stick to fur.
    B. Ride on wind.
    C. Enable passage through an animal's gut.
    D. Float on water.
    E. All these are potential roles of angiosperm fruits.
    E. All these are potential roles of angiosperm fruits.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Fungi are not

    A. Extracellular digesters
    B. Bearers of chitin walls
    C. Heterotrophic
    D. Spore producers
    E. Photosynthetic
    E. Photosynthetic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Psilocybin acts as a(an)

    A. Food
    B. Alcohol-producing enzyme
    C. Fermentation enzyme
    D. Hallucinogen
    E. Antibiotic
    D. Hallucinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a

    A. Cyanobacteria and fungus
    B. Plant and algae
    C. None of these
    D. Plant and fungus
    E. Algae and fungus
    D. Plant and fungus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Fungal infections are typically

    A. Restricted to nervous tissue
    B. In the blood
    C. Systemic
    D. In the digestive tract
    E. Restricted to body surfaces
    E. Restricted to body surfaces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Gros Michel bananas were almost wiped out in the

    A. 1980s
    B. 2000s
    C. 1940s
    D. 1960s
    E. 1920s
    D. 1960s
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. The spread of disease in plants is not aided by

    A. Global trade.
    B. Monoculture.
    C. High-density planting.
    D. All these facilitate the spread of disease in plants.
    E. Lack of genetic diversity.
    D. All these facilitate the spread of disease in plants.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Which of the following statements is not correct?

    A. Ferns and angiosperms are vascular plants.
    B. Mosses are nonvascular plants.
    C. Only angiosperms produce fruits.
    D. Gymnosperms were the earliest flowering plants.
    D. Gymnosperms were the earliest flowering plants.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Which does not apply to gymnosperms or angiosperms?

    A. diploid dominance
    B. all of these
    C. single spore type
    D. vascular tissues
    C. single spore type
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Bryophytes have independent ___ and dependent ___.

    a. sporophytes; gametophytes
    b. gametophytes; sporophytes
    b. gametophytes; sporophytes
  70. Ferns are classified as ___ plants.

    A. multicelled aquatic
    B. nonvascular seed
    C. seed-bearing vascular
    D. seedless vascular
    D. seedless vascular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. The ___ produce flagellated sperm.

    A. monocots
    B. conifers
    C. ferns and monocots
    D. ferns
    D. ferns
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The ___ produced in the male cones of a conifer develop into pollen grains.

    A. ovaries
    B. megaspores
    C. ovules
    D. microspores
    D. microspores
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. A seed is ___.

    A. an immature spore
    B. a female gametophyte
    C. a mature ovule
    D. a mature pollen tube
    C. a mature ovule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. All fungi ___.

    A. form flagellated spores
    B. are multicelled
    C. are heterotrophs
    D. all of these
    C. are heterotrophs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Fungal decomposers derive nutrients from ___.

    A. living plants
    B. organic wastes and remains
    C. photosynthesis
    D. living animals
    B. organic wastes and remains
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. A mushroom is ___.

    A. a reproductive structure that releases sexual spores
    B. the longest-lived part of the fungal life cycle
    C. the food-absorbing part of a fungus
    D. the only part of the fungal body not made of hyphae
    A. a reproductive structure that releases sexual spores
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Human fungal infections most commonly involve

    A. the heart
    B. the digestive system
    C. body surfaces
    D. the brain
    C. body surfaces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. A ___ is a composite organism composed of a fungus and a single-celled photosynthetic species.

    A. ringworm
    B. mycorrhiza
    C. decomposer
    D. lichen
    D. lichen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Cell walls of fungi are composed of ___.

    A. chitin
    B. cellulose
    C. lignin
    D. keratin
    A. chitin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Breaks down organic matter

    A. Dikaryotic
    B. Yeast
    C. Mushroom
    D. Decomposer
    E. Mycelium
    F. Hypha
    G. Chytrid
    D. Decomposer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Single-celled fungus

    A. Decomposer
    B. Mushroom
    C. Dikaryotic
    D. Hypha
    E. Yeast
    F. Chytrid
    G. Mycelium
    E. Yeast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Filament made of walled cells

    A. Decomposer
    B. Mushroom
    C. Hypha
    D. Chytrid
    E. Yeast
    F. Dikaryotic
    G. Mycelium
    C. Hypha
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Club fungus fruiting body

    A. Yeast
    B. Decomposer
    C. Hypha
    D. Mushroom
    E. Chytrid
    F. Dikaryotic
    G. Mycelium
    D. Mushroom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Fungus with flagellated spores

    A. Yeast
    B. Mushroom
    C. Mycelium
    D. Decomposer
    E. Dikaryotic
    F. Chytrid
    G. Hypha
    F. Chytrid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. Mesh of fungal filaments

    A. Yeast
    B. Dikaryotic
    C. Chytrid
    D. Mycelium
    E. Decomposer
    F. Hypha
    G. Mushroom
    D. Mycelium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Having two nuclei in a cell

    A. Yeast
    B. Hypha
    C. Chytrid
    D. Dikaryotic
    E. Decomposer
    F. Mushroom
    G. Mycelium
    D. Dikaryotic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Decomposer

    A. Having two nuclei in a cell
    B. Single-celled fungus
    C. Mesh of fungal filaments
    D. Filament made of walled cells
    E. Fungus with flagellated spores
    F. Club fungus fruiting body
    G. Breaks down organic matter
    G. Breaks down organic matter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Yeast

    A. Filament made of walled cells
    B. Fungus with flagellated spores
    C. Mesh of fungal filaments
    D. Single-celled fungus
    E. Breaks down organic matter
    F. Having two nuclei in a cell
    G. Club fungus fruiting body
    D. Single-celled fungus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Mushroom

    A. Club fungus fruiting body
    B. Having two nuclei in a cell
    C. Filament made of walled cells
    D. Mesh of fungal filaments
    E. Single-celled fungus
    F. Fungus with flagellated spores
    G. Breaks down organic matter
    A. Club fungus fruiting body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. Chytrid

    A. Breaks down organic matter
    B. Club fungus fruiting body
    C. Mesh of fungal filaments
    D. Fungus with flagellated spores
    E. Single-celled fungus
    F. Having two nuclei in a cell
    G. Filament made of walled cells
    D. Fungus with flagellated spores
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Hypha

    A. Mesh of fungal filaments
    B. Filament made of walled cells
    C. Having two nuclei in a cell
    D. Fungus with flagellated spores
    E. Club fungus fruiting body
    F. Breaks down organic matter
    G. Single-celled fungus
    B. Filament made of walled cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Mycelium

    A. Filament made of walled cells
    B. Breaks down organic matter
    C. Mesh of fungal filaments
    D. Single-celled fungus
    E. Having two nuclei in a cell
    F. Fungus with flagellated spores
    G. Club fungus fruiting body
    C. Mesh of fungal filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. Dikaryotic

    A. Filament made of walled cells
    B. Mesh of fungal filaments
    C. Club fungus fruiting body
    D. Fungus with flagellated spores
    E. Having two nuclei in a cell
    F. Breaks down organic matter
    G. Single-celled fungus
    E. Having two nuclei in a cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. gymnosperm

    A. seedless vascular plant
    B. “naked” seeds
    C. spore-producing body
    D. gamete-producing body
    E. nonvascular land plant
    F. help control water loss
    B. “naked” seeds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. gymnosperm
    sporophyte
    horsetail
    bryophyte
    gametophyte
    stomata

    A. spore-producing body
    B. nonvascular land plant
    C. seedless vascular plant
    D. “naked” seeds
    E. help control water loss
    F. gamete-producing body
    A. spore-producing body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. horsetail

    A. nonvascular land plant
    B. gamete-producing body
    C. “naked” seeds
    D. spore-producing body
    E. seedless vascular plant
    F. help control water loss
    E. seedless vascular plant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. bryophyte

    A. spore-producing body
    B. gamete-producing body
    C. seedless vascular plant
    D. nonvascular land plant
    E. “naked” seeds
    F. help control water loss
    D. nonvascular land plant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. gametophyte

    A. spore-producing body
    B. nonvascular land plant
    C. seedless vascular plant
    D. help control water loss
    E. “naked” seeds
    F. gamete-producing body
    F. gamete-producing body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. stomata

    A. spore-producing body
    B. “naked” seeds
    C. seedless vascular plant
    D. nonvascular land plant
    E. help control water loss
    F. gamete-producing body
    E. help control water loss
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. “naked” seeds

    A. gymnosperm
    B. stomata
    C. bryophyte
    D. horsetail
    E. gametophyte
    F. sporophyte
    A. gymnosperm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. spore-producing body

    A. horsetail
    B. sporophyte
    C. gametophyte
    D. gymnosperm
    E. bryophyte
    F. stomata
    B. sporophyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. seedless vascular plant

    A. sporophyte
    B. horsetail
    C. gymnosperm
    D. stomata
    E. bryophyte
    F. gametophyte
    B. horsetail
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. nonvascular land plant

    A. bryophyte
    B. gymnosperm
    C. stomata
    D. horsetail
    E. sporophyte
    F. gametophyte
    A. bryophyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. gamete-producing body

    A. stomata
    B. horsetail
    C. bryophyte
    D. sporophyte
    E. gymnosperm
    F. gametophyte
    F. gametophyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. help control water loss

    A. horsetail
    B. sporophyte
    C. bryophyte
    D. stomata
    E. gametophyte
    F. gymnosperm
    D. stomata
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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