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2014-04-26 22:19:00
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  1. Seneca Falls Convention
    Organized by local New York women for the visit of Lucretia Mott from Philadelphia ( a Quaker famous for her orating ability, a skill rarely cultivated by American women at the time.)-This was an early and influential women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, July 19-20, 1848 -the women in favor of the convention saw this as the first step towards gaining for themselves a greater proportion of social, civil and moral rights - those opposed to the convention viewed it as a revolutionary beginning to the struggle by women for complete equality with men.-resulted in the Declaration of Sentiments a foundational document in the American woman's suffrage movement. -the first time that women and men gathered together to demand the right for women to vote.
  2. Dorothea Dix
    1820's: A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill-she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. -persuaded many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. -She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
  3. John C. Calhoun
    40-year political career- he played a vital role in protecting Southern interests.- At the beginning of his congressional career, he was a militant nationalist.- a War Hawk-he defended the institution of slavery as "a positive good"-for states rights- he authored the South Carolina Exposition and Protest that advanced the right of the South to nullify those laws passed by the national legislature that were viewed as harmful to its sectional interests.
  4. Oregon Territory
    Area in the Northwest occupied by both Britain and America because of their "joint occupation" agreement from 1818.- The territory became a target for Manifest Destiny, and settlers began to travel to Oregon by the Oregon trail.
  5. Stephen Douglass
    A Democratic Senator from Illinois who debated Abraham Lincoln during his run for Senator in the Lincoln-Douglass Debates. Lost to Lincoln in the ELection of 1860. He was an avid supporter of the Compromise of 1850, supported popular sovereignty, he rescued Clay's faltering compromise.
  6. Wilmont Proviso
    (1846) Proposition that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states. It passed in the House but not in the Senate. Slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery.
  7. John Deere
    He was a blacksmith who invented the steel plow in 1839. - his invention lead to the extensive farming in the upper Mississippi Valley (His plow cut easily through the tough and sticky prairie sod of the upper Mississippi Valley )
  8. Maine Laws
    Passed in 1851- first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes
  9. Mexican American War
    An armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 -in wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas. -Mexico claimed ownership of Texas as a breakaway province and refused to recognize the secession - military victory by Texas in 1836. - American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
  10. Trail of Tears
    The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
  11. Emancipation Proclamation
    (1862) Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
  12. Hinton Helper Impending Crisis
    Hinton Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used his book, "The Impending Crisis" to try and prove that non-aristocratic whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. Helper's influence was negligible among the poorer whites, but he found success in the North. The South was infuriated that the North was reading these lies, and made the south increasingly unwilling to sleep under the same federal roof with the North.
  13. Dred Scott v Sandford
    1857 For the first time since Marbury v. Madison, the Court held an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional. Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens ( despite the fact that in some areas they were treated as citizens.)
  14. Bank War
    Nicholas Biddle had operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. Many opposed the Bank because it was too large and powerful. Some disputed its constitutionality. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill in 1832 to recharter the Bank. He removed the federal government's deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans, hoping for a retraction by Jackson, which never occurred. A financial recession resulted.
  15. Mexican Cession
    Historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. This massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
  16. Cyrus McCormick
    Designed McCormick reaper, which was horse drawn and was used to cut and harvest ripe crops with ease
  17. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    (1848) Defeated Mexican leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago. Mexico gave the U.S. more than 50,00 square miles of territory. Mexico gave up a vast region which included California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona. As well as parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.-US payed 15 million to Mexico.-US paid 3.25 million in claims against Mexico.-Protected 80,000 people living in Texas.-Rio Grande was the border between the nations.-Texas became a state of the US.
  18. John Slidell
    Polk appointed him commissioner to Mexico shortly after taking office in 1845. His mission was to negotiate a settlement of the dispute over the southern border of the Republic of Texas and the purchase of New Mexico and California but the Mexican government refused to accept his appointment. This diplomatic rejection paved the way for Mexican-American War of 1846-1847.
  19. Abolitionist
    people who fought for emancipation (freedom) of the slaves and to end the slave trade
  20. Bleeding Kansas
    Violent events involving pro-slave and anti-slave groups that took place in Kansas Territory attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state
  21. Horace Mann
    (1796-1859) Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education.
  22. Commonwealth v Hunt
    (1842) The Supreme Court of Massachusetts ruled trade union organization and striking tactics were legal as long as their methods were honorable and peaceful.
  23. Trancendelism
    A nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
  24. Webster Ashburton Treaty
    (1842) Tyler's secretary of state, Daniel Webster concluded this treaty with Great Britain that settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada as well as the location of the border in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains. Awarding more than half of the territory to the US. It also called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories.
  25. Whigs/2nd American Party System
    (1828 to 1854)The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by election day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party. The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and other opponents of Jackson. Minor parties included the Anti-Masonic Party, the abolitionist Liberty Party in 1840; and the anti-slavery Free Soil Party in 1848 and 1852. The Second Party System reflected and shaped the political, social, economic and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era, until succeeded by the Third Party System.
  26. Whigs
    In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
  27. Freeport Doctrine
    Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
  28. James K. Polk
    (1845-1849) Polk was a slave-owning Southerner dedicated to Democratic party. He won the 1844 presidential election as a "dark horse" candidate. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
  29. Apologist's view of slavery
    Because the bible did not say slavery was wrong they were not against it.( there was slavery of the israelites, negro servant of canaan, and no prophets condemned it.).
  30. Force Act
    (1832) Jackson's response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1832; enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
  31. Homestead Act
    (1862) It gave 160 acres of public land in the west to any settler who would farm the land for five years. Passed during the Civil War, which said that for every 10 dollars that any citizen paid, the person would get 160 acres of public land. As soon as the war was over, the people started heading west for the land. It was used as an incentive to get people to move West. Many homesteaders were immigrants, so they had to fill out citizenship papers.
  32. Lucretia Mott
    Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
  33. Independent Treasury
    Created when Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840. It took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation.
  34. Nashville Convention
    (1850) Was a meeting of representatives of nine southern states in the summer of 1850 to monitor the negotiations over the Compromise of 1850. It called for extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean and a stronger Fugitive Slave Law. The convention did accept the Compromise but laid the groundwork for a southern confederacy in 1860-1861.
  35. Morill and Grant Act
    In 1862 the government donated public land to states for the establishment of colleges. As a result, sixty-nine institutions were established in the late nineteenth-century. A hundered more universities were formed in 1887 as a result of the combination of the Hatch Act and the Morrill Act.
  36. Compact Theory
    The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
  37. Frederick Douglass
    born a slave but escaped to the North and became a prominent black abolitionist; gifted orator, writer, and editor; published "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass."
  38. Free Soilers
    shifted the focus from the morality of slavery to the ways which slavery posed a threat to northern expansion. The free-soil doctrine established a driect link between expansion, which most Americans supported and Sectional politics. Freesoilers were ANTI-BLACK, not anti-slavery.
  39. Second Great Awakening
    A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
  40. Worcester v Georgia
    (1832) Court case in which Cherokee Indians hired an American lawyer, Samuel Worcester, to sue the state of Georgia. Chief Justice Marshall rules that Georgia cannot impose laws on Cherokee territory as only the federal government has a say in Indian affairs and that they must honor the Cherokee's property rights. Jackson disagreed with this ruling.
  41. Charles River Bridge Case
    Supreme Court decision of 1837 that promoted economic competition by ruling that the broader rights of the community took precedence over any presumed right of monopoly granted in a corporate charter. Charles co. sues Warren co. for building near its bridge claiming the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract. Cheif Justice Taney decided that public convience takes precedence over contract.
  42. Cult of Domesticity/True Womanhood
    The ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house.
  43. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    (1850) Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
  44. Gag Rule
    (1835) Law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress.
  45. DeTocqueville/Democracy in America
    Aristocrat's study of America. "General equality of condition among the people", wondering about fluidity of American society with the rise of industrialism-an examination of the democratic revolution that he believed had been occurring over the past seven hundred years.-it predicted the violence of party spirit and the judgment of the wise subordinated to the prejudices of the ignorant.
  46. William Seward
    Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price. "Seward's Folly." "Seward's Icebox"
  47. Fugitive Slave Law
    By 1843, hundreds of slaves a year were successfully escaping to the North.- slavery is an unstable institution in the border states.-passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers. - the most controversial acts of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy".-stated all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters. -called the "Bloodhound Law" by abolitionists.-caused many free blacks to be enslaved since any suspected slave was not eligible for a trial because they had no rights in court and were not allowed to defend themselves against accusations-In 1854, the Wisconsin Supreme Court became the only state high court to declare the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional
  48. Removal of Deposits
    Jackson was suspicious of the Bank of the United States abusing its power. Jackson felt that several in his party were denied loans because of the party they were in. (During first election)-Biddle was using the resources of the United States Bank to channel funds into Clay's campaign.(in the second election) -to destroy the Bank of the United States, Jackson decided to withdraw all of government's money from the bank and put it into state banks instead.-reason for the removal: the Bank of the United States was being used to store public funds and the bank could use these funds for its own purpose without paying interest for using the money. It could issue bank notes and was not required to pay state taxes. It was also understood that Congress was not to charter any comparable financial institution. In return, the Bank was to pay a bonus to the government of one and a half million dollars, public funds were transferred and payments made with no charge and the government was to appoint five of the Bank directors.this set up made the Bank of the United States a very powerful influence upon national affairs however it had no higher entity to answer to, neither the people nor the government. Such power would have enabled the Bank to also wield a great deal of political power.
  49. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
  50. Brigham Young
    The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
  51. Specie Circular
    (1836) President Jackson issued it to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
  52. Crittenden Compromise
    (1860) A last-ditch to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden by compromise. It proposed a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves Lincoln and the Republicans rejected the proposal.
  53. Lecompton Constitution
    Docuement framed in Lecompton, Kansas, by Southern pro-slavery advocates of Kansas statehood.Lecompton Constitution claimed to let voters decide between a "constitution with slavery" and a "constitution with no slavery," but they were given no real choice: the "constitution with no slavery" prohibited only the importation of new slaves, not the slaves already established in the territory. It contained clauses protecting slaveholding and a bill of rights excluding free blacks, and it added to the frictions leading up to the U.S. Civil War.
  54. Perpetual Union
    Andrew Jackson responds forcefully to South Carolinia's threat of sucession: the Union was perpetual and that no state had the right of secession. He signs this as he signs the Force Bill reasserting his claim to the use of the military.
  55. Compromise of 1850
    Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.
  56. Nullification
    The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations)- states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"- the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
  57. William Llyod Garrison/Liberator
    An abolitionist who became editor of the Boston publication the Liberator in 1831. Under his leadership the Liberator gained great fame. He attacked everything from slave holding, to moderate abolitionists. He supported northern secession
  58. Spoils System/Rotation in Office
    Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders. Allowed ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government.
  59. Popular Soverignty
    the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government.
  60. Gadsen Purchase
    (1850) The United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
  61. American Anti-Slavery Society
    (1833-1870) Founded by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
  62. Irish Immigration
    Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era. "Nativist" sentiment came about with the formation of the Know-Nothing Party.
  63. Trent Affair
    In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release.
  64. Know Nothings/American Party
    Influential third party of the 1840s; it opposed immigrants, especially Catholics, and supported temperance, a waiting period of citizenship, and literacy tests. Officially the American Party, its more commonly used nickname came from its members' secrecy and refusal to tell strangers anything about the group. When questioned, they would only reply, "I know nothing."
  65. Mormons
    Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT.
  66. Prigg v Pennsylvania
    (1842) Court ruled return of fugitive slaves was a federal power, thus making unconstitutional Pennsylvania's law prohibiting the capture and return of fugitive slaves.
  67. Kansas Nebraska Act
    (1854) This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. Repealed the Missouri Cmrpomise in1820. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
  68. Manifest Destiny
    This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
  69. Republican Party/3rd Party
    political party formed in 1854 in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act; it combined remnants of Whig, Free Soil, and Know-Nothing Parties as well as disgruntled Democrats. Although not abolitionist, it sought to block the spread of slavery in the territories. It also favored tariffs, homesteads, and a transcontinental railroad.
  70. Lincoln Douglass Debates
    Debates between Lincoln and His opponent for the position of Senator in Illinois. A series of seven total in which Lincoln lost.- Lincoln edited both his remarks and his opponents remarks and published them in a book which became the main reason he was nominated for president of he United States.-The main theme of the debates was slavery, especially the issue of slavery's expansion into the territories.
  71. Tariff of Abominations
    (1828) The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
  72. Ostend Manifesto
    (1854) A declaration issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
  73. Antebellum
    1781-1860 Latin for "before the war" in american history used in refrence to the time before the American Civil War.
  74. Battle of Antietam
    (1862) McClellan's men found a copy of Lee's plans and were able to stop the Confederates in one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. No side won, but it was the Union display of power that Lincoln needed to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
  75. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Harriet Beecher Stowe's 1852 novel that portrayed the evils of slavery -sold 1.2 million copies in 2 years- the book increased sectional tensions- aroused sympathy for runaway slaves - hardened many against the South's defense of slavery-(also called Life among the lowley.)
  76. Neal Dow
    "Father of Prohibition" He made a law in Maine that would disallow lethal alcohol to be sold.
  77. Sumner Brook's Affair
    During an antislavery speech, a Senator named Sumner insulted another congressman named Butler who was related to another Congressman named Brooks. -Brooks beat Sumner with his cane as Sumner sat writing at his desk in the Senate Chamber which crippled him.- It showed how far southerners were willing to go to protect slavery as well as tarnishing the image of the South.
  78. Underground Railroad
    A network of people who helped thousands of enslaved people escape to the North by providing transportation and hiding places. - It is believed that the system started in 1787 when Isaac T. Hopper, a Quaker, began to organize a system for hiding and aiding fugitive slaves.-By the middle of the 19th century it was estimated that over 50,000 slaves had escaped from the South using the underground railroad.
  79. National Banking Act
    (1863) A United States federal law that established a system of national charters for banks. The Act, together with Abraham Lincoln's issuance of "greenbacks," raised money for the federal government in the American Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds and taxed state bonds out of existence.
  80. Nature of the Union
    The South insisted that the federal Union was created by the states and that any state had the right to secede. The North insisted that the Union was created by the people and was indivisible, and that no state had the right to secede. Lincoln proclaimed that the primary object of the war was not to abolish slavery, but to preserve the Union. The main topic in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates.