Abnormal Psych - Autism Spectrum (Ch. 15)

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  1. Three Major Criteria For Defining Intellectual Disability
    • Deficits in intellectual functions
    • Deficits in adaptive functions
    • Onset before the age of 18
  2. An IQ of ____ or below is usually cutoff for an intellectual disability
  3. Intelligence tests are scored to have a mean IQ of _____ and a standard deviation of ______
    100; 15
  4. Flynn effect
    IQ scores are rising across generations, so even if intelligence of someone doesn't change in an absolute sense, their IQs fall relative to the rising mean
  5. Central Symptoms of DSM-4 Autistic Disorder (3)
    • Impaired communication
    • Impaired social interaction
    • Restrictive and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities
  6. Savant Performance
    • An exceptional ability in a highly specialized area of functioning
    • No adequate theory for savant performance
  7. Dysprosody
    Subtle disruptions in the rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech
  8. Echolalia
    Uttering phrases back, perhaps repeatedly
  9. Sally-Ann Task
    Sally puts a marble in her basket and leaves. While she's gone, Ann moves marble to her basket. When Sally returns, where does she look?

    • Normal: her basket
    • ASD: Ann's basket

    ASD: lack theory of mind
  10. Apparent sensory deficit
    Sense organ is not impaired, but patient suggests otherwise
  11. Other (weird) Characteristics of Autistic Disorder (DSM-4) (3)
    • Sleeping difficulties
    • Chronic GI problems
    • Unusual responses to sound or light
  12. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DOS)
    • Standardized behavioral observation and coding
    • Different modules based on age and language ability¬†
    • Gold standard
  13. ____ of children diagnosed with Autistic Disorder achieve partial independence as adults
  14. Adult Outcomes of Children Diagnosed with Autism
    • Poor outcomes are most common
    • Good outcomes are least common
    • Far fewer adults in hospital care now compared to 1980
  15. DSM-4 Autistic Disorder is more common in (boys/girls). How much more common?
    Boys; 3-4 times more common
  16. DSM-4 Autistic Disorder: Prevalence Among Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Age Groups
    Occurs in all
  17. DSM-4 Autistic Disorder: Etiology
    • Mounting evidence for biological causes instead of psych/social causes
    • Genetics: 60% MZ and 0% DZ twins; 92% MZ, 10% DZ for broader spectrum
    • Endorphins and neuropeptides
    • Brain abnormalities (small cerebellum, large ventricles)
    • Abnormal levels of NTs - NE, 5HT, Dopamine
  18. Are parents of kids with autism smarter on average?
    • Researchers found that children treated for ASD had especially well-educated parents
    • But, this is due to a bias; well-educated parents are more likely to seek specialized treatment
  19. Most promising approach to treat classic autism?
    Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
  20. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
    • Identify specific target behaviors and gain control over these behaviors using reinforcement and punishment
    • Very intensive and time consuming
  21. Asperger's Disorder: Central Symptoms
    • Impaired social interaction
    • Restrictive and repetitive behaviors, interests or activities
    • NO impairment in communication
  22. Asperger's Prevalence
    Data is lacking
  23. Asperger's: No Significant Delays in... (5)
    • Language
    • Cognitive Development
    • Self-help skills
    • Adaptive behaviors (other than social interaction)
    • Curiosity about environment
  24. Asperger's: Course
    • Continuous and lifelong
    • Better prognosis than autism
    • Adolescents - interest in social relationships may increase; suicide rates elevated
    • Many individuals capable of employment and self-sufficiency
  25. Asperger's: Treatment
    • Psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, anti-psychotics, and mood stabilizers
    • Behavioral treatment
  26. DSM-5: ASD Additional Criteria
    • Symptoms must be present in early developmental period
    • Symptoms cause impairment
    • Not better explained by an intellectual disability or global delay
  27. DSM-5: ASD Specifiers
    • With or without accompanying intellectual impairment
    • With or without accompanying language impairment
    • Associated with known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor
  28. ASD Prevalence: ____% of the population
  29. ASD is more common in (males/females). How much?
    Males; 4 x more common
  30. Risk Factors of ASD
    • Advanced parental age
    • Low birth weight
    • Exposure to valproate
    • 37-90% heritability estimates
Card Set:
Abnormal Psych - Autism Spectrum (Ch. 15)
2014-04-23 04:23:49
abnormal psych tubblish exam

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