Ecology final set I

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  1. how many people on earth?
    7.2 billion
  2. how many planets would it take for everyone to live like americans?
    4 1/2 planets
  3. percentage of people on earth that are American?
  4. percentage of the world's resources americans use?
    • 25%
    • 5 times more then we should
  5. definition of population ecology
    study of populations in relation to environment
  6. environmental influences on density and distribution for population ecology
    • age
    • gender
    • population size
  7. Two examples of animals that when protected rebounded from extinction
    • fur seals
    • alligators
  8. what do dynamic biological processes influence?
    • population density
    • dispersion
    • demography
  9. the number of individuals per unit area or volume
  10. pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
  11. how to determine how many in a population
    • Lincoln-Peterson index
    • count the number in subplot(tag animals)
    • extrapolate(capture, ratio: # tagged:untagged)
  12. how is density measured?
    # of organisms coming into verses leaving the system
  13. birth, includes any biological process that increases population
  14. term for organisms leaving a system
    • emigration
    • -death
  15. term for organisms coming into the system
    • immigration
    • -birth
  16. type of dispersion that individuals aggregate in patches and reasons
    • clumped dispersion
    • resource availability
    • behavior-wolves
  17. dispersion where the position of each individual is independent of other individuals and example
    • random dispersion
    • -dandelions
  18. dispersion in which individuals are evenly distributed
    • uniform dispersion
    • penguins
    • pulp wood forest
  19. 3 types of dispersion
    • clumped
    • uniform
    • random
  20. 3 reasons for uniform dispersion
    • social
    • territorial behavior
    • human action
  21. the study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time
  22. what are 2 particular interest to demographers
    • death and birth rates
    • -insurance companies
  23. an age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population
    life table
  24. calculation for the average life expectancy
    # deaths/# of alive
  25. situation where a life table is made by
    • the fate of a cohort
    • a lot born or hatched at the same time
    • -baby boomers
  26. what is the event called when baby boomers have their kids
    echo effect
  27. a graphic way of representing the data in a life table
    survivorship curves
  28. describe survivorship curve graph
    • x-axis: Age (years) or time
    • y-axis: Number of survivors (log scale)
    • slope is always decreasing
  29. survivorship curves with steps
    • metamorphosis
    • maggots, caterpillars, moths
  30. examples for the 3 types of survivorship curves
    • Type I: People
    • Type II: small mammals
    • Type III: sea turtles, trees
  31. an age specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
    -#of offspring @ certain times
    • reproductive table
    • fertility schedule
  32. calculation for reproductive table
    proportion of females weaning a litter x mean # of females in litter=average # of female offspring
  33. equation for reproductive rates
    mean clutch size x hatching success
  34. life history traits are evolutionary outcomes reflected in the: 1, 2, 3, of an organism
    • development
    • physiology
    • and behavior
  35. two types of diversity for reproduction
    • semelparity
    • iteroparity
  36. species that reproduce once (a lot) and die
  37. species that produce offspring repeatedly
  38. fish that reproduce then die
  39. describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment
    exponential model
  40. if immigration and emigration are ignored, pop growth rate equals birth rate -death rate
    per capita rate of increase
  41. when does zero pop growth occur
    when birth rate = death rate
  42. differential calculus calculation to express population growth as growth rate at a particular instant in time
    • dN/dt=rN
    • r=reproductive
    • n=population
    • t=time
  43. examples of semelparity and iteroparity
    active vs. passive seed dispersal
  44. the inverse relationship to brood size vs. care
    • fewer size=better care
    • larger size=less care
  45. example of low newborn success rate and parental care
    sea turtles
  46. population increase under idealized conditions
    and calculation
    • exponential population growth
    • dN/dt=rmaxN
  47. which growth results in a J-shape and what does it represent?
    • exponential population growth
    • rebounding of endangered populations
Card Set:
Ecology final set I
2014-04-28 02:35:25
Ecology II
1st set for 2nd exam
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