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2014-04-23 09:03:18

sociology test 2
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  1. Deviance
    violation of social norms (highly subjective)
  2. Formal vs. Informal Deviance
    laws vs. social rules
  3. Social construction of Deviance
    comes about as a result of rules of behaviour in society
  4. Medicalization of Deviance
    psychiatry and psychology have medicalized sadness to the point that anyone who is sad at any point is considered to have depressive disorder
  5. Merton: Structural Strain Theory
    tension between culturally accepted goals and means of achieving them
  6. Conformity
    the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms
  7. Innovative Deviance
    Innovation is a slight warping of the conformist's views (accumulating wealth by dishonest means)
  8. Ritualistic Deviance
    rejects the goal but accepts the means (going to work every day but rejecting goals of employer)
  9. Retreatism Deviance
    rejects both the goals of society and the legitimate means of obtaining these goals (vagrants, unemployed by choice)
  10. Rebellion
    reject both the cultural means of society and the venues for obtaining them, but unlike the retreatist they pursue alternatives and seek to replace existing cultural norms with those in the counter culture
  11. Social Control Theory of Deviance and Crime
    various mechanisms used by a society/social group to punish deviance and reinforce comformity
  12. Conflict Theory of Deviance
    fundamental causes of crime are the social and economic forces operating within society; the powerful define crime
  13. Social Control and Forms of Social Control
    • physical: death, torture, spanking
    • economic: fines, pay dock, termination
    • psychological: humiliation, gossip, ostracism, opprobrium (systematic shaming)
  14. Differential Association Theory
    deviance is learned
  15. Labeling Theory
    people known by their labels
  16. Ethnicity vs. Race
    social (Hispanic) vs. physical (black)
  17. Racialization
    ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such
  18. Racial Formation Theory
    how races are formed
  19. Stereotype interchangeability
    changed by actions & power struggle
  20. Prejudice vs. Discrimination
    attitude vs. action
  21. Scapegoat Theory
    group losing power blames other group
  22. Authoritarian Personality
    follows orders blindly, superstitious
  23. Caste System
    position in society fixed at birth and hard to change
  24. Sexual Orientation vs. Sexual Identity
    orientation rigid (gay) vs. something you show (sadist/furry)
  25. Queer Theory
    sexuality is complex (more than gay or straight) sexuality is a spectrum
  26. Salience Principle
    visible (race) stereotypes
  27. Stereotype
    oversimplifications of behavior