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  1. what in the small intestine is the first part closest to stomach, 25 cm long; receives chyme from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver; retroperitoneal
  2. what in the small intestine is where SI reenters peritoneal cavity; 2.5 m long; most chemical digestion and nutrient absorption happens here
  3. what in the small intestine is the final segment; 3.5 m long; ends at ileocecal valve which controls flow of material from SI to LI
  4. what in small intestine is columnar epithelium cells which absorb  materials from the intestinal lumen
    absorptive cells
  5. what in small intestine can secrete mucus
    goblet cells
  6. what in small intestine adds enzymes to intestinal lumen and replaces epithelial cells lining SI
    intestinal glands
  7. what in small intestine produce hormones
    S cells
  8. what is small intestine secrete cholecystokinin, a hormone that increases the secretion of pancreatic enzymes, triggers release of enzymes from the pancreas, and can inhibit hunger sensations
    CCK cells
  9. what in small intestine secrete hormones in the duodenum
    Brunner's glands
  10. what in small intestine is plicae circulares” most found in jejunum; increase surface area available for absorption
    circular folds
  11. what in small intestine protect digestive tract from pathogens and toxins
    MALT (lymphatic nodules)
  12. what are fingerlike projections that contribute to the increase in surface area for the purpose of absoption
    villi in the small intestine
  13. what structure of villi in small intestine absorb materials including ions, water, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins (i.e B12), amino acid
    absorptive cells
  14. what structure of villi in small intestine (brush border) protect epithelium, have enzymes, that break down materials that come into contact with the brush border; these materials can then be absorbed. these enzymes are specific to different materials (i.e. maltase, sucrase and lactase digest sugars, peptidases break down proteins, etc.)
  15. what are the three factors in chemical digestion
    carbs-amylases, proteins-peptidase, lipids-lipases and bile salts
  16. what structure of villi in small intestine have each villus has a capillary network to transport materials that are absorbed
  17. what structure of villi in small intestine have  lympatic capillary; transport materials that cannot enter capillaries (too big)
  18. what are the three factors in absorption
    monosaccharides, amino acids, and lipds
  19. what part of absorption includes simple sugars, absorbed by facilitated diffusion in jejunum
  20. what part of absorption are the building blocks of proteins
    amino acid
  21. what part of absorption are fats, cholesterol is extracted and circulates in blood; fatty acids can be used for energy or stored
  22. what has the function of reabsorption of water, compaction of fecal matter, absorption of vitamins, storage of feces
    large intestine
  23. what are the three segments of the large intestine
    cecum, colon, rectum
  24. what in large intestine is connection between SI and LI
    ilocecal valve
  25. what in large intestine is attached to the cecum, has lymphatic system functions
  26. what in large intestine is a pouch at entrance LI, begins process of compaction
  27. what in large intestine is first segment of colon, on right margin of peritoneal cavity
    ascending colon
  28. what in large intestine crosses abdomen from right to left
    transverse colon
  29. what in large intestine is on left side and proceeds inferiorly
    descending colon
  30. what in large intesting is s-shaped segment, empties into rectum
    sigmodial colon
  31. what in large intestine is expandable, temporary storage facility for fecal material
  32. what in large intestine is a series of pouches in intestinal wall, allows colon to lengthen
  33. what in large intestine exit of digestive tract
  34. what digestion in large intestine has haustral churning, peristasis: move material
    mechanical digestion
  35. what digestion in large intestine include mass movements: power peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day, begins at transverse colon and push materials along distal part of LI
    mechanical digestion
  36. what in large intestine is only 10% of nutrients absorption in the digestive tract occurs in LI, colon absorbs 2 vitamins, k b12 biotin
  37. what in large intestine has material left in the tract (organic wastes like urobiligen, toxins, etc) remain in colon and will be ejected in the form of feces
    feces formation
  38. what is fecal material is 75% water, 5% bacteria and 20% indigestible materials
    feces formation
  39. what is about 1500ml of material enters the colon, but over 1000ml of water is reabsorbed through osmosis
    feces formation
  40. what in large intestine reflex is started when material enters and distends to rectum, stimulating stretch receptors
    defecation relex
  41. what in large intestine have two ring of muscle external anal sphincter: voluntary
    internal anal sphincter: involuntary
    defecation reflex
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