CLEP Natural Science

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CLEP Natural Science
2014-04-23 16:35:56
CLEP Natural Science
CLEP Natural Science
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  1. Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old, and life has existed on it for 3.5 billion years. Li
    3.5 billion years
  2. Scientists Miller and Urey tested this hypothesis by setting up a closed flask containing the gases and compounds thought to have been present on the early Earth. Simulating lightning in this closed system produced
    mino acids and hydrocarbons—building blocks of more-complex organic molecules.
  3. Cenozoic 65.5–present
    • Genus Homo appears
    • Mammals, birds, and pollinating insects, and angiosperms diversify
  4. Mesozoic 251–65.5
    • Major extinction event (dinosaurs)
    • Angiosperms (flowering seed plants) appear
    • Earliest mammal-like creatures appear
    • Dinosaurs and gymnosperms diversify
  5. Paleozoic 543–251
    • Major extinction event
    • Reptiles and insects diversify
    • Gymnosperms (seed plants) appear
    • Vascular plants cover land
    • Tetrapods and insects appear
    • Bony fishes diversify
    • Vascular plants diversify
    • Plants and arthropods colonize land
    • Cambrian “explosion” of animal phyla
  6. Phanerozoic Era 543–present has 3 parts
    • Cenozoic65.5–present
    • Mesozoic251–65.5
    • Paleozoic543–251
  7. Proterozoic 2500–543
    Fossils of soft-bodied animals and algae (600)Oldest eukaryotic fossils (2200)
  8. Archean 4600–2500
    • Atmospheric oxygen increases (2700)
    • Oldest prokaryotic fossils (3500)
    • Oldest rocks (3800)
  9. the three main time line Era's are
    • Phanerozoic 543–present
    • Proterozoic 2500–543
    • Archean 4600–2500
  10. All living things are divided into three broad domains
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  11. Eubacteria:
    These “true” bacteria are simple cells that contain circular chromosomes floating free in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a cell membrane and a cell wall
  12. Archaea
    sare certain features with eukaryotes. Many Archeans are extremeophiles, thriving in conditions of extreme temperature, salinity, pH, or pressure
  13. Eukarya:
    Much larger than prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, linear DNA coiled around histone proteins and contained in a nucleus, and introns
  14. he five-kingdom system is
    • Prokarya
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalae
  15. Prokarya:
    Archaea and eubacteria
  16. Protista:
    This is a catch-all category for eukaryotes that fail to qualify for any of the kingdoms below, and the relationships among different groups of protists is not well known; both single-celled and multicellular algae are classified as protists rather than plants
  17. Fungi:
    This kingdom includes both single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes: the yeasts used in baking and brewing and the macroscopic mushrooms found in the supermarket are all fungi. Fungi digest their food outside the cell, and many species are saprophytes or decomposers.
  18. Plantae:
    Multicellular, complex photosynthetic organisms, plants range from mosses to redwoods; all plant cells contain chloroplasts and are capable of photosynthesis.
  19. Animalae
    Multicellular, complex heterotrophs, animals include a diversity of body plans