Unit 1: Structure of the Atom

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  1. law of conservation of matter
    in chem rxns matter is neither created nor destroyed
  2. law of constant composition
    each pure chemical compound always has the same percentage composition of each element by mass
  3. Dalton's atomic theory
    • all matter composed of atoms, cannot be created nor destroyed
    • each elements have atoms that are identical in their properties, and these properties are different from other atoms
    • chemical rxns are rearrangements of atoms
  4. electron charge
    -1.60x10-19 couloumb
  5. plum pudding model
    electrons bathed in a sea of positive charges like pudding
  6. who discovered electrons
    J.J. Thomson
  7. who discovered protons
  8. nuclear model of the atom
    Rutherford's idea that there is a small dense positive nucleus surrounded by mostly empty space and some electrons
  9. who discovered neutrons
  10. Bohr's model of the atom
    • electrons only exist in certain allowed orbits
    • orbitals n get further away from nucleus
    • light energy emitted when electrons go to a lower orbit, energy needed to boost electrons¬†
    • energy difference between orbits is constant
  11. wave mechanical model/wave particle duality
    Broglie suggested atoms have the characteristics of waves; can behave as wave as well as particle
  12. uncertainty principle
    • Heisenberg's idea that the postion and the momentum of any particle cannot be known exactly at the same time
    • as one is known more precisely, the other becomes less certain
  13. ground state
    atoms/molecule existing in lowest possible energy state
  14. excited state
    atom/molecule that has more energy than the ground state
  15. wavelength
    distance between two repeating points
  16. frequency
    number of waves that pass a point in space each second
  17. wavelength and frequency relationship
    inversely proportional; as one increases, the other decreases
  18. energy and frequency relationship
    directly proportional; as one increases, the other increases
  19. energy and wavelength relationship
    inversely proportional; as one increases, the other decreases
  20. stability of electrons depends on
    • how much energy they have
    • most stable place for electron is the first energy level, closest to nucleus, lowest possible amount of energy
  21. modern orbit
    region of space in which the probability of finding the electron is the highest
  22. principal energy levels
    denoted by n, energy level closest to the nucleus is 1, then each succeeding energy level is numbered with consecutive integers
  23. maximum number of electrons for principle energy levels
  24. number of sublevels in each principle energy level
    equal to the value n of that energy level
  25. sublevel numbers
    called l, ranges from 0 to n-1 up until 3, correspond to the letters spdf
  26. sublevel orbitals
    within sublevels, there are orbitals spdf, each with a maximum of two electrons

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Unit 1: Structure of the Atom
2014-04-24 00:21:22

AP Chem
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