1900-1918

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1900-1918
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  1. Treaty of Varsailles
    • forced Germany to accept blame for WWI and to pay reparations; (Adolf Hitler would later take advantage of this source of Bitterness the "war guilt" caused in the Germans) led to the break-up of Austria-Hungary
    • germany can't maintain army, established new nations and league of nations, shrink German colonies, Woodrow Wilson himself went to Paris to negoiate the treaty and did not take any prominent republicians with him in his delegation. he also urged the us to vote for democrates in the upcomming election to help support him to get through the war this also offended them because they had been working with him. (maybe this lead to some of the republicians not being in support of the league of nations) this did cause democrates to loose spots in the house and senate. 14 republicans and 2 democratic opposed being in the League of nations. US didn't sign
  2. League of Nations
    An international organization formed in 1920 after WWI to promote cooperation and peace among nations. Suggested originally by Woodrow Wilson but the U S never joined. and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed
  3. Committee on Public Information
    • Organized by President Woodrow Wilson and established on April 14, 1917 headed by George Creel it composed of the secretaries of state, war, and the navy, with the help of journalists, photographers, artists, entertainers, was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. The committee helped spur up the anti-German feeling in America as well as motivated Americans to support war against Germany once declared. Employed over employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees.
    • Goal was to urge people especially immigrants to become "One hundred percent American" German Americans were most affected. Concert halls banned music by German composers. School districts shut down German language programs, and hamburgers were renamed "liberty sandwiches:" There were posters exhorting citizens to root out German spies.
  4. Muckrakers
    Included Frank Norris (The Octopus), Ida Tarbell (A History of the Standard Oil Company), Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities), and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle). They were bright young reporters at the turn of the twentieth century who won this unfavorable moniker from Theodore Roosevelt, but boosted the circulations of their magazines by writing exposés of widespread corruption in American society. Their subjects included business manipulation of government, white slavers, child labor, and the illegal deeds of the trusts, and helped spur the passage of reform legislation. (1906)
  5. Russo-Japanese War
    "the first great war of the 20th century"; conflict between Japan and Russia over Korea and Manchuria for control of Port Arthur ; Japan's victory is first Asian victory over West. Japan retains Manchuria.
  6. Henry Cabot Lodge
    Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations and disagreed with the Versailles Treaty.Wilson's great senatorial antagonist, succeeded in his goal of keeping America out of the League of Nations. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
  7. Open Door Policy
    a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China this was done because England and US were afraid that that trade with China would be affected by all of the other countries looking at china like a dog looking at a bone. ( This happened after Japan defeated them in war and the other countries saw that China could not effectively defend itself against others.)
  8. Fourteen Points Fourteen
    goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced the Fourteen Points to Congress in early 1918. They included public negotiations between nations, freedom of navigation, free trade, self-determination for several nations involved in the war, and the establishment of an association of nations to keep the peace. The "association of nations" Wilson mentioned became the League of Nations.
  9. Panama Canal Ship
    canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
  10. Federal Trade Commission
    Created in 1914, replaced the Bureau of Corporations. This nonpartisan commission investigated and reported on corporate behavior, and was authorized to issue cease and desist orders against unfair trade practices. Enabled the government to more easily kill monopolies.
  11. Creel Committee
    Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty - important b/c it was pro war - first propaganda movement to this extent - made to sell wilsons war goals to america and the world AKA the Committee on Public Information. US WWI propaganda machine
  12. International Workers of the World
    1905 - Also known as IWW or Wobblies - radical labor union created in opposition to American Federation of Labor. Followed socialist ideas based off of Karl Marx; this group was persecuted during WWI due to their socialist tendencies and activism against the government
  13. Federal Reserve System
    • The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy .
    • created by Congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available. It consists of 12 regional banks supervised by the Board of Governors. Often called simply the Fed.
  14. irreconcilables
    Led by Senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, this was a hard-core group of militant isolationists who opposed the Wilsonian dream of international cooperation in the League of Nations after World War I. Their efforts played an important part in preventing American participation in the international organization. They opposed any treaty ending WW1 that had a League of Nations folded into it
  15. Dollar Diplomacy
    Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies,this policy started as a way for the US to have some control in what was happening in other countries without fighting with them, later caused the US to cotinue their involvement in different countries politics in order to protect american investments in those countries.
  16. W.E.B. DuBois
    first black Ph.D. from Harvard; a founder of the NAACP; said that blacks should strive for equal opportunities now and not later; differed from Booker T. Washington's ideas in terms of how black should fight segregation
  17. Niagara movement
    group of African American thinkers founded in 1905 that pushed for immediate racial reforms, particularly in education and voting practices
  18. Hay-Buneau-Varilla
    Treaty Buena Varilla compromised with Hay and T. Roosevelt to engineer a revolution in Panama against the Colombian government, therefore allowing the US to build a canal there 1900-1918
  19. Woodrow Wilson
    28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
  20. Progressive Movement
    This was a period of widespread political reform that lasted from the 1890s through the first two decades of the 20th century. The movement actually comprised a number of efforts on the local, state, and national levels, and included both Democrats and Republicans who championed such causes as tax reform, woman suffrage, political reform, industrial regulation, the minimum wage, the eight-hour work day, and workers' compensation. The reform-minded enthusiasm of this era came to an end as the United States entered World War I in 1917, and energies were redirected into the war effort.
  21. Wobblies
    An international union that was led by William Haywood who was eventually convicted under the Espionage Act. This organization, often abbreviated as the IWW and officially called the Industrial Workers of the World, held the belief that all laborers should be united as a class and also that the wage system should be eradicated. This group organized created extremely damaging industrial sabatoge due to the fact that they were victims of terrible working conditions. This is significant because it portrays how labor still suffered terrible grievances especially during the war because people were more focused on being selfless and thinking solely about how to help the war effort.
  22. Article X
    This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
  23. reservationists
    These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.
  24. spheres of influence
    sections of a country where foreign nations enjoy special rights. China was split into these during the age of imperialism
  25. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
    Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
  26. 16th amendment
    Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
  27. 17th amendment
    Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
  28. Upton Sinclair
    He was the author of the sensational novel, THE JUNGLE, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products.
  29. The Jungle
    This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry.and portrayed the dangerous and unhealthy conditions prevalent in the meatpacking industry at that time The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act, and prompted President T. Roosevelt to sign the Meat Inspection Act.
  30. Volstead Act
    specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
  31. Mann-Elkin Act 1910
    , gave the Interstate Comerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companies; included communications
  32. Sussex/Arabic Pledges
    pledges by the Germans before US entrance into WWI to stop using submarine warfare against US ships and to pledge not to destroy any more American citizens, in time they violated these pledges 1934-1941
  33. Charles and Mary Beard
    • Wrote The Rise of American Civilization (1927),
    • Historians best know for their study of American History stating that it was economics values not political philosophies that laid the base for our government adn modern society.
  34. Anthracite Coal Strike
    1st evidence of TR's reform -over 150,000 miners walked off their jobs demanding higher pay, shorter days and offiicial recognition of their union - result= mine owners agreed to arbitration - was also perceived as having sided with the strikers rather then movement= huge switch from government positions
  35. Zimmerman Note (Telegram)
    a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April. Also promised Mexico the recovery of land lost to America in exchange for their help in the war.
  36. Eugene V. Debs
    Labor leader and socialist who was a tireless spokesman for labor radicalism; founded the American Railway Union and the workers in the Pullman Strike of 1894 and sentenced to six months in jail as a result; organized the Social Democratic party in 1897 and ran for President in 1900, 1904 and 1912.
  37. Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones
    Toledo Mayor that helped established the Ohio Oil Company which was later bought by Standard Oil Company, making Jones a wealthy man.Asked his workers to work hard, be honest, and follow the golden rule. Opened free kindergartens, built parks, instituted an eight-hour day for city workers, and reformed the city government. Was not well liked by other businessmen, the average citizen supported him. When his term was over Jones was not renominated by the Republicans.
  38. Underwood-Simmons Tariff
    • 1914, Reduced import duties on most goods and lowered the overall average duty from 40% to 25%. It lowered tariff rates but raised federal revenues.
    • It was significant because Wilson wanted to lower tariffs because he thought that it encouraged the growth of monopolies. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment. It was a milestone in tax legislation since it enacted a graduated income tax.
  39. Bull Moose Party
    The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). The party wanted tariff reduction, women's suffrage, higher corporate regulation and a child labor ban, a federal compensation for workers, and several other platforms.His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
  40. Theodore Roosevelt
    • 26th presidentRepublician.'Speak softly but carry a big stick', known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
    • Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France
  41. Gentlemen's Agreement
    • Chinese immigration to California boomed during the Gold Rush of 1852. By 1905, anti-Japanese rhetoric filled the pages of the San Francisco Chronicle.
    • The immediate cause of the Agreement was anti-Japanese nativism in California. In 1906, the San Francisco, California Board of Education passed a regulation whereby children of Japanese descent would be required to attend separate, racially specific schools. They were able to do this after the earthquake and fire in san fransisco before they could not seperate them because there was no funding to build a school just for them. At the time, Japanese immigrants made up approximately 1% of the population of California; many of them had immigrated under the treaty in 1894 which had assured free immigration from Japan.
    • Japanese-Americans soon contacted the media in Japan to make the government aware of the segregation. Tokyo newspapers denounced the segregation as an "insult to their national pride and honor". The Japanese government was also highly concerned with their reputation overseas as they wanted to protect their reputation as a world power. Government officials became aware that a crisis was at hand, and intervention was necessary in order to maintain diplomatic peace.
  42. Insurgent's Revolt
    Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule that was supported by American sugar planters; yellow press coverage of the Spanish backlash led to the Spanish-American War.
  43. Robert LaFollette
    Governor of Wisconsin who was a militant progressive. He wrestled control out of the hands of corrupt corporations and perfected a way for regulating public utilities. helped found the National Progressive Republican League, which intended to unseat Taft. He is remembered for introducing the first workers' compensation system, railroad rate reform, direct legislation, municipal home rule, open government, the minimum wage, non-partisan elections, the open primary system, direct election of U.S. Senators, women's suffrage, and progressive taxation
  44. Big Stick Policy
    Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen; used by T.R. to improve world peace, "Speak softly and carry a big stick." Said that the "big stick" (aka the US army/navy) could be used to keep other countries in line and to make sure that the countries of Latin America behaved themselves
  45. Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt's
    1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. U.S. was granted the right to intervene militarily in neighboring countries in cases of "chronic wrong-doing" such as not paying debts or failure to maintain order. This made the U.S. an "international police power."
  46. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
    Act signed by President Wilson in 1916 that excluded from interstate commerce goods manufactured by children under fourteen; later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the ground that regulation of interstate commerce could not extend to the conditions of labor.
  47. Food Administration
    Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
  48. Insular Cases
    The Supreme Court cases (1901-1903) that dealt with the constitutional rights in the newly acquired overseas territories. The Court ruled that the Constitution did not necessarily follow the flag, and therefore Congress was to determine how to administer the territories.
  49. New Nationalism
    Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor.
  50. Pure Food and Drug Act
    In response to upton sinclair's novel the Jungle US legislation in 1906 placed restrictions on the makers of prepared foods and patent medicines and forbade the manufaxture, sale, or transportation of adulterated, misbranded, pr harmful foods, drugs, and liquors.Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling italso gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
  51. Northern Securities Case
    Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
  52. Lochner v. New York (1905)
    This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment which allowed Lochner to regulate his business when he made a contract. The specific contract Lochner made violated the New York statute which stated that bakers could not work more than 60 hours per week, and more than 10 hours per day. Ultimately, it was ruled that the New York State law was invalid, and violated the workers "liberty of contract" to accept any terms they chose.
  53. Clayton Anti-trust Act
    An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, it outlawed price discrimination,and tying agreements,the provisions were quilifiey by the conservative senet by tacking on the phrase "where the effect may be to substatially lesson competition." interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefiting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property orprevent injury. passed in 1914.
  54. New Freedom
    Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
  55. Great White Fleet 1907-1909
    Roosevelt sent the Navy(16 American battleships) on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement." (This was not unpresidented since France had done the same with Russia to get the czar to sign a treaty in 1894.) It was a common practice in the early 1900 for countries to show off their navy fleets to one another at different countries celebrations around the world. ( a kind of showing off to one another.)

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