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  1. Japanese internment
    Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 men women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior. After the Japanese were let out of the camps, a majority of them returned to the Pacific Coast. They began to start new lives and try to forget what happened. Many of them lost there land when they were brought to the camps, so when they returned they tried to regain what they had lost. In 1948, Congress agreed to pay for some of that property. They began by giving the Japanese-Americans less than ten cents for each dollar they had lost. By giving them back what they had lost was a beginning of saying "We're sorry." Also they started a civil liberties act stating "The Congress recognizes that, as described in the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, a grave injustice was done to both citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation, and internment of civilians during World War II. Finally, the Japanese began to live a normal life, except many had trouble finding jobs and getting money loans. After years went by, they started farms and bought new houses. Others were damaged for life. This tragic event left different people, with different emotions. Many were killed and other wounded forever. Today many are suing to be paid back what their family lost.
  2. Greensboro sit-ins
    peaceful protest by black students against segregation at lunch counters. At segregated Woolworth's counter in Greensboro, NC, February of 1960 4 black college students from the NC Agricultural and Technical College staged a sit-in to protest the segregation in public places. Each day they sat down at whites only lunch counter, ordered foood, and naturally they were not served because they were not white, they sat waiting for the food that would not be served to them and refused to move.Each day, they came back with many more protesters. Sometimes, there were over 100. Led to the formation of the SNCC and sit-ins at Woolworth food counters across the country. Despite white harassment, it eventually led to the desegregation of lunch counters.
  3. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
    The first U.S. civilians to be excecuted in 1953 for espionage. The engineer and his wife who were accused,of running an espionage ring in New York City that gave atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. The case and the execution were highly controversial. Later evidence has shown that Julius was definitely guilty, but doubts remain about Ethel.They are the only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage, as well as the only Americans to be given the death penalty for espionage. This is significant because this case caused many Americans to realize that the red-hunting situation had gone too far and also showed the role anti Semitism played in the red scare.
  4. U-2 incident
    occurred during the Cold War on 1 May 1960, during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over the airspace of the Soviet Union. The United States government at first denied the plane's purpose and mission, but then was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its intact remains and surviving pilot, Francis Gary Powers, as well as photos of military bases in Russia taken by Powers. Coming roughly two weeks before the scheduled opening of an East-West summit in Paris, the incident was a great embarrassment to the United States and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the Soviet Union.
  5. The Four Power Paris Summit
    between president Dwight Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev, Harold Macmillan and Charles de Gaulle collapsed, in large part because Eisenhower refused to accede to Khrushchev's demands that he apologize for the incident. Khrushchev left the talks on 16 May.
  6. Marshall Plan
    a plan ,named after Secretary of State George Marshall,for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. It was one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased trade barriers and set up institutions to coordinate the economy on a continental level—that is, it stimulated the total political reconstruction of western Europe
  7. Casablanca Conference
    Jan. 14-23, 1943 -FDR and Chruchill met in Casablanca,Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war. Importaint because it showed they were not going to make any agreements with the axis. This agreement was also done to reassure the Soviets that the Allies would not make a separate peace with Hitler.
  8. Dumbarton Oaks Conference
    In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
  9. Alger Hiss
    American lawyer, civil servant, businessman, author and lecturer.U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon. Couldn't be convicted of espionage because of the amount of time since the crime had been committed.
  10. "long hot summers" ...
  11. Henry Wallace
    was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933-1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945-1946). In the 1948 presidential election, Wallace was the nominee of the Progressive Party. He was head of the progressive party, another faction that branched off from the dem party before the election of 1948; was a liberal democrat who were frustrated that truman's domestic policies were ineffective and were against his foreign anti-communist policies
  12. Baby Boomers
    The large group of people born in US from 1946-1964. During this period, about 76 million children born. US population rose 20%. Baby boom meant increased consumer demand and expanding economic growth 8: 1941-1960
  13. Jack Kerouac
    1922-69 was a serious Roman Catholic, but also had extended interest in Buddhism. Wrote On the Road in 1957 which he described as two Catholic buddies searching for God. Also wrote Dharma Bums in 1958 which introduced a lot of people to Buddhism. Discussed in 3/26 lecture. Connected with the Beat Generation (postwar hipsters who prepared the way for hippies by writing spontaneous prose, doing drugs, practicing free love (including homosexuality) and renouncing obligations of home and the work place before the 60s. The media may have interpreted the term "beat" in negative terms ("beat down" or "beat up") but Kerouac insisted on a poor positive reading - "beatific." Kerouac was born in Lowell MA into a family of French-Canadian Catholics... came to Buddhism through Thoreau's Walden which inspired him to further explore Buddhism. He urged fellow Beats to "dig" the Buddha. Kerouac returned to Roman Catholicism at the end of his life, but Buddhism *Zen and Yogacara school) influenced many of his works. He wrote On the Road (1957) andDharma Bums (1958).
  14. On the Road 1957
    • , written by Jack Kerouac;
    • the novel expressed the alienation and disillusionment of the Beat Generation of the 1950s;
    • like other Beat Generation writers, Kerouac rejected middle-class conformity and materialism.
  15. Little Rock School
    crisis Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
  16. GI Bill of Rights
    Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business.
  17. Jackie Robinson
    The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
  18. Korematsu v U.S.
    1944 Supreme Court case which upheld FDR's 1942 executive order for teh evacuation of all Japanese-Americans on the West Coast into internment camps which operated until 1945
  19. Montgomery bus boycott
    December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
  20. McCarthyism
    • became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence
    • The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
  21. Harry Truman
    The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
  22. Truman Doctrine 1947,
    President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
  23. Teheran Conference
    the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference among the Big Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom) in which Stalin was present
  24. San Francisco Conference
    1945-drafted the United Nations Charter and its origins lay in a 1942 "Declaration by the United Nations" issued by twenty‐six countries that had declared war against the Axis powers, and the 1943 Moscow Declaration by the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China calling for a new international organization to replace the League of Nations. Further planning occurred at the 1944 Dumbarton Oaks conference and a draft charter was prepared at the February 1945 Yalta conference. (50 nations came)
  25. NSC 68
    National Council Report 68 (NSC-68) was a 58-page top secret policy paper issued by the United States National Security Council on April 14, 1950, written by Paul Nitze, contrasting Kennan's view of containment. during the presidency of Harry S. Truman. It was one of the most significant statements of American policy in the Cold War. NSC-68 largely shaped U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years, and involved a decision to make militarized Containment against Communist expansion a high priority. The strategy outlined in NSC-68 arguably achieved ultimate victory with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent emergence of a "new world order" centered on American liberal-capitalist values alone. Truman officially signed NSC-68 on September 30, 1950. Spending on defense tripled.
  26. Youngstown Sheet and Tube v Sawyer
    during the Korean War, President Truman issued an executive order directing Secretary of Commerce Charles Sawyer to seize and operate most of the nation's steel mills. the Court found that there was no congressional statute that authorized the President to take possession of private property. The Court also held that the President's military power as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces did not extend to labor disputes.
  27. Douglas MacArthur
    (1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
  28. Sputnik
    October, 1957 .First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
  29. beat generation 50s
    The Beat Generation is a term used to describe both a group of American writers who came to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired (later sometimes called "beatniks"). The members of the Beat Generation quickly developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity.
  30. Eisenhower Doctrine 1957
    • Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism.
    • The doctrine stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms. Used in the Middle East.
  31. Servicemen's Readjustment Act 1944
    A government legislation designed to solve the problem of what the 15 million soldiers would do once they got back home. It allowed all servicemen to have free college education once they returned from the war, and it created the Veterans Administration allowing them to take out loans.
  32. New Frontier
    The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election.President John F. Kennedy's legislative program, which included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild blighted urban areas,to aid education to bolster the national defense, to increase international aid, and to expand the space program.
  33. Federal Highway Act 1956
    largest public works project in the United States history; Eisenhower signed the law, which built over 40,000 miles of highways in the United States at a cost of $25 billion and created the interstate highway system; ostensibly to create routes for moving military supplies and for emergency evacuation in case of nuclear attack. The highway system made coast-to-coast driving a more common occurrence, and car-oriented vacations became a reality. - The growth of interstate highways allowed for a demographic shift as people vacationed, visited, and moved to areas in the south and southwest—the Sunbelt, from Florida through the deep South, all the way through Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
  34. Employment Act of 1946
    Towards the end of the war, Truman urged Congress to enact a series of progressive measures, including national health insurance, an increase in the minimum wage, and a bill to commit the U.S. government to maintaining full employment. After much debate, the watered-down version of the bill was enacted. It created the Council of Economic Advisers to counsel both the president and Congress on means of promoting national economic welfare
  35. Brown v Board of Education 1954
    The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
  36. Fair Deal
    An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
  37. containment
    a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
  38. Yalta Conference
    February, 1945 - (the Big Three)Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
  39. United Nations
    is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
  40. Berlin Airlift
    An operation carried out by U.S. and British troops to provide supplies to the 2.5 million people in West Berlin now that Stalin had closed the supply routes. This kept the Western powers from being forced to abandon the city in Communist hands. For 15 months, food, fuel, and other supplies were continually delivered, and the Soviets opened their blockade in mid-1949.
  41. George Kennan
    an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.He was the US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces; established concern for Soviet policy in Eastern Europe, Germany, and the Middle East He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
  42. Korean War World War II
    divided Korea into a Communist, northern half and an American-occupied southern half, divided at the 38th parallel. The Korean War (1950-1953) began when the North Korean Communist army crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded non-Communist South Korea. As Kim Il-sung's North Korean army, armed with Soviet tanks, quickly overran South Korea, the United States came to South Korea's aid.
  43. General Douglas MacArthur
    who had been overseeing the post-WWII occupation of Japan, commanded the US forces which now began to hold off the North Koreans at Pusan, at the southernmost tip of Korea. Although Korea was not strategically essential to the United States, the political environment at this stage of the Cold War was such that policymakers did not want to appear "soft on Communism." Nominally, the US intervened as part of a "police action" run by a UN (United Nations) international peace- keeping force; in actuality, the UN was simply being manipulated by US and NATO anti-Communist interests.
  44. MacArthur
    crushed the North Korean army in a pincer movement and recaptured Seoul, the capital of South Korea. Instead of being satisfied with his rapid reconquest of South Korea, MacArthur crossed the 38TH Parallel and pursued the North Korean army all the way to the northernmost provinces of North Korea. Afraid that the US was interested in taking North Korea as a base for operations against Manchuria, the People's Republic of China secretly sent an army across the Yalu River.Truman fired MacArthur, and the fighting raged on for another two years.Only after Eisenhower, who was a war hero and was unafraid of Republican criticism (since he himself was a Republican), became President, could the US make substantial concessions to the Communists. In 1953 a peace treaty was signed at Panmunjom that ended the Korean War, returning Korea to a divided status essentially the same as before the war. Neither the war nor its outcome did much to lessen the era's Cold War tension.
  45. NATO
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries created in 1949.
  46. Taft-Hartley Act 1947
    Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops. giving the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction and permitting states to forbid requirements in labor contracts that force workers to join a union. It was seen as a means of demobilizing the labor movement by imposing limits on labor's ability to strike and by prohibiting radicals from their leadership. The law was promoted by large business lobbies including the National Association of Manufacturers. Arguably, the controversial act also helped President Harry Truman get reelected, given that the act galvanized labor unions into opposing Republicans.
  47. National Defense Education Act
    Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.
  48. Ralph Bunche
    This African American diplomat was Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. He worked to bring peace to the Middle East in the 1940s.
  49. dynamic conservatism
    Eisenhower's philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats; balancing economic conservatism with some activism.
  50. warsaw pact
    treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. (In response to NATO)
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