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  1. Miranda v Arizona
    • This concept extended to a concern over police interrogation practices, which were considered by many to be barbaric and unjust. Coercive interrogation tactics were known in period slang as the "third degree".
    • 1966,Ernesto Miranda was arrested after a crime victim identified him, but police officers questioning him did not inform him of his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination, or of his Sixth Amendment right to the assistance of an attorney. While he confessed to the crime, his attorney later argued that his confession should have been excluded from trial. The Supreme Court agreed, deciding that the police had not taken proper steps to inform Miranda of his rights. This had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.
  2. Huey Newton
    co-founder and leader of the Black Panthers an African-American organization established in October 1966, to promote black power, civil rights, and self-defense.
  3. Jimmy Carter
    • He was the officer in charge of the U.S. team assisting in the shutdown of the Chalk River Nuclear Reactor. During and after his presidency, he indicated that his experience at Chalk River shaped his views on nuclear power and nuclear weapons, including his decision not to pursue completion of the neutron bomb. Carter is the only U.S. president to have lived in housing subsidized for the poor.
    • He was elected to the state Senate in 1961. 9The election involved fraudulent voting. Joe Hurst, the sheriff of Quitman County was involved in system abuses, including votes recorded from deceased persons, and tallies filled with people who supposedly voted in alphabetical order. Carter challenged the results; when fraud was confirmed, he won the election.) Carter was reelected in 1964, to serve a second two-year term.
    • 39th president of the US, who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.
  4. Washington Outsiders
    a candidate who has not served in Congress or has connections to special interest groups or lobbyists who seek to influence public policy in Washington. The term is regularly used in politics to symbolize a candidate's desire to bring change to Washington.
  5. Bay of Pigs 1960
    An unsuccessful attempted by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. The invasion ended in disaster and strengthened the position of Castro's administration, who proceeded to openly proclaim their intention to adopt socialism and strengthen ties with the Soviet Union, leading to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The invasion was a major embarrassment for U.S. foreign policy, with Kennedy ordering a number of internal investigations. Across much of Latin America, it was celebrated as evidence of the fallibility of U.S. imperialism.(the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs)
  6. Economic Opportunity Act
    Lyndon B. Johnson on August 20, 1964. It was central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty it consisted of several social programs to promote the health, education and general welfare of the poor. Remaining War on Poverty programs are managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services's Office of Community Services and the U.S. Department of Labor.
  7. Malcolm X
    May 19, 1925 - February 21, 1965 Minister of the Nation of Islam, urged blacks to claim their rights by any means necessary, more radical than other civil rights leaders of the time.disillusionment with Nation of Islam head Elijah Muhammad led him to leave the Nation in March 1964. After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, he returned to the United States, where he founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. In February 1965, less than a year after leaving the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three members of the group."I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then ... pointed in a certain direction and told to march"—and becoming a Sunni Muslim, he disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders, he continued to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination, and self-defense.
  8. SALT I Treaty
    (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) resulted in a 5 year agreement in 1979 between the US and the USSR, signed in 1972, that limited the nations' numbers of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles. the United States chose not to ratify the treaty in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which took place later that year.The US eventually withdrew from SALT II in 1986.
  9. Mayaguez Incident
    • After the S. Viet gov't fell, an effort was made to rescue Americans at the embassy while N. Viet troops closed in. A few weeks later, the new commie Cambodia seized the Mayagüez, a US ship. Mad, Ford sent military to rescue. 41 troops died to save the 39 sailors. (Peace time military rescue operation conducted by US armed forces against Cambodia.)
    • took place between the Khmer Rouge and the United States from May 12-15, 1975, was the last official battle of the Vietnam War. The merchant ship's crew, whose seizure at sea had prompted the U.S. attack, had been released in good health, unknown to the U.S. Marines or the U.S. command of the operation, before the Marines attacked.
  10. Gerald Ford
    The 38th president of the US and the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nearly 500,000 US and South Vietnamese from Vietnam.
  11. Helsinki Accords
    It was a political and human rights agreement to improve relations between the communists and the west and was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and most European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West. These , however, were not binding as they did not have treaty status.
  12. Reagonomics
    • Ronald Reagan's economic beliefs that a captitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive.These policies are commonly associated with supply-side economics. "Trickle Down Effect." is how this was reffered to by political opponents.
    • The four pillars of the economic policy were to reduce the growth of government spending, reduce the federal income tax and capital gains tax, reduce government regulation, and control the money supply in order to reduce inflation
  13. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    (an echo of the 15th amendment.) federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people (usually African Americans) from voting, and expanded government efforts to register voters. Considered a landmark in civil-rights legislation that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
  14. Rachel Carson
    was an American marine biologist and conservationist. Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Late in the 1950s Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides, and it inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Her books are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
  15. War Powers Act
    Is a federal law intended to check the President's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. The resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution; this provides that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or in case of "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces."
  16. Betty Friedan
    American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the second wave of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique," an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; the bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement and she in 1966 created a National Organization for Women.
  17. Cuban Missile Crisis
    leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. In a TV address on October 22, 1962, President John Kennedy (1917-63) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security. Following this news, many people feared the world was on the brink of nuclear war. However, disaster was avoided when the U.S. agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's (1894-1971) offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey.
  18. Stokely Carmichael
    a black civil rights activist in the 1960s who urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing "black power.", active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He rose to prominence first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "Snick") and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. Initially an integrationist, later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements
  19. Vietnamization
    A war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine". As applied to Vietnam, it was labeled "Vietnamization".
  20. George Wallace
    Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
  21. Roe v Wade
    US supreme court case that state that a woman's right to abortion is determined by her current trimester in pregnancy.
  22. War on Poverty
    President LBJ's program in the 1960s to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly.
  23. Warren Commission
    established by LBJ to investigate the assassination of JFK. Found that Oswald was a lone assassin but some questions were left unanswered.
  24. Hippies
    A subculture, originally a youth movement that began in the US. They advocated universal love and peace.
  25. Bakke v Board of Regents
    US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
  26. Supply-side economics
    An economic philosophy that holds that sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
  27. Michael Harrington
    Author who wrote The Other America. He alerted those in the mainstream to what he saw in the run-down and hidden communities of the country.
  28. Stagflation
    An economic situation in which inflation and economic stagnation occur simultaneously and remain unchecked for a significant period of time. Occurred in the 1960s and 1970s.
  29. Barry Goldwater
    Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history.
  30. Ralph Nader
    A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles.
  31. Equal Rights Amendment
    constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender.
  32. John F. Kennedy
    35th president of the US. President during the Cold War, Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis. He passed the Civil Rights Act.
  33. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    A joint resolution of the US Congress in response to two alleged minor naval skirmishes on the coast of North Vietnam. It allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel armed attacks or prevent further aggression.
  34. Ronald Reagan
    40th president of the US. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He developed the "trickle down effect" of government incentives. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War.
  35. Martin Luther King Jr.
    US Baptist minister and civil rights leader. He opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations.
  36. Gideon v Wainwright
    US Supreme Court case that unanimously ruled that state courts are required to provide an attorney in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own.
  37. Great Society
    President LBJ's version of the Democratic reform, included Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
  38. Lee Harvey Oswald
    Accused of assassinating JFK, but he was never convicted.
  39. Camp David Accords
    A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel.
  40. Affirmative Action
    policies that take race, ethnicity, physical disabilities, military career, sex, or social class into consideration in an attempt to promote equal opportunity or increase ethnic or other forms of diversity.
  41. Peace Corps
    volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of Communism by getting rid of poverty.
  42. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Extended voting rights and outlawed racial segregation in schools, workplaces, and facilities serving the general public.
  43. Lyndon B. Johnson
    36th president of the US, who wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of Communism.
  44. Kent State
    A university where in the 1960s and 1970s was known for student activism in opposition to US involvement in Vietnam.
  45. SNCC
    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April of 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 a week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, the Freedom Summer, and the MFDP. young people.
  46. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
  47. OPEC
    • Founded in 1960 at the Baghdad conference.
    • Policy Statement' says there is a right of all countries to exercise sovereignty over their natural resources.
    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
  48. Tet offensive
    1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
  49. Bush v. Gore
    The united states supreme court decision in 2000 that ruled in favor of George W. Bush and ordered the state of Florida to stop ballot recounts; Decision led to an electoral victory for Bush.
  50. Black Panthers
    an African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.The Black Panther Party achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Panther Party was an auxillary of the greater movement, often coined the Black Power Movement. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.
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