PSYC 106 Midterm 1 Terms E-M

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HollyBergen
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271700
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PSYC 106 Midterm 1 Terms E-M
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2014-04-24 01:30:57
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Physiology PSYC106
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PSYC106 physiology
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  1. Efferent
    • = Exiting
    • Information LEAVING the cell to another (away from a structure
  2. Mesocorticolimbic
    The mesolimbic pathway transmits dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the limbic system via the nucleus accumbens. The VTA is located in the midbrain, and the nucleus accumbens is in the ventral striatum
  3. Electrical Gradient
    The difference in electrical charges between the inside & outside of the cell
  4. EPSP
    • Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential
    • DEPOLARIZING
    • LESS NEGATIVE (= more positive)
    • If POSTsynaptic cell opens SODIUM channels, + charge, cell less negative, more +
  5. Forebrain
    • Most anterior part of the brain; consists of 2 cerebral hemispheres
    • Receives sensory info contralaterally
    • Outer portion is cerebral cortex
    • Includes:
    • 4 Lobes,
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Basal ganglia (movement)
    • Hippocampus
    • Limbic system (interlinked structures)
  6. Ganglion
    • Type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the bipolar cells
    • ALSO a cluster of neuron cell bodies OUTSIDE the CNS (except Basal Ganglia, which are INSIDE)
  7. Glial Cell
    • "Glue"
    • Support/Structure
    • Make CSF
    • 10x as many as neurons! ~90% brain cells!
    • In the nervous system that, does NOT conduct impulses over long distances
    • Types:
    • Astrocytes (help synchronize activity of axons)
    • Microglia (small, remove waste, viruses, fungi)
    • Oligodendrocytes & Schwann (build myelin sheaths)
    • Radial glia (guide migration during embryonic dev)
  8. Grey Matter
    • Parts of nervous system packed with CELL BODIES & DENDRITES
    • Brain: Grey on OUTSIDE, white on inside
    • Spinal cord: Grey on INSIDE, white on outside
  9. Gyrus
    A protuberance on the surface of the brain
  10. Lamina
    Row or layer of cell bodies separated from other cell bodies by a layer of axons & dendrites
  11. Tract
    Set of axons within the CNS, aka projection. If axons extend from cell bodies in structure A to synapses onto B, we say they "project" from A to B
  12. Sulcus
    A fold or groove that separates on e gyrus from another
  13. Fissure
    A long, deep sulus (fold/groove separating gyri)
  14. Hindbrain
    • Posterior part of brain
    • Brainstem
    • Includes:
    • Medulla (controls breathing, heart rate, etc)
    • through Cranial Nerves (control sensations from the head, muscle movements)
    • Pons ("bridge" crossing axons from brain to spinal cord to opposing sides)
  15. Hippocampus
    • "seahorse"
    • MEMORY - esp individual events
    • damage = problem storying new memories (50 first dates)
  16. Hypothalamus
    • THERMOSTAT
    • Connections to rest of brain
    • Hormones - conveys messages to pituitary gland, altering its release of hormones
    • Motivated behaviors:
    • Feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, sexual behavior, fighting, activity level
  17. Inferior/Superior
    Below/Above
  18. Interneuron
    • aka "Intrinsic neuron"
    • Neuron whose axons & dendrites are all confined within a given structure
    • The "EVERY OTHER" neuron that's not sensory & motor
    • MOST OF THEM.
    • ex interneuron of thalamus has axon & all dendrites within the thalamus
  19. Hydrocephalus
    • "Water head"
    • But it's not water..it's CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
    • Block of normal flow/ absorption
  20. Wernicke's Area
    • Located in TEMPORAL LOBE
    • Used in language COMPREHENSION
    • Located in dominant (usually LEFT) hemisphere
  21. Limbic Nuclei
    • "The Emotional Brain"
    • Mammillary body: linked to memory and alcoholism
    • Amygdala: emotion and fear
    • Hippocampus: spatial learning
    • Septum: aggression
  22. Midbrain
    Sensory processing, spatial orientation
  23. Colliculi
    • Colliculus = "mound"
    • Inferior colliculus: the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway
    • Superior colliculus: a paired structure that forms a major component of the vertebrate midbrain
    • Collicular arteries: which supply portions of the midbrain
  24. Saltatory Conduction:
    • AP jumps
    • between insulated nodes
  25. Ligand
    Chemical that binds to another
  26. Ligand-gated channels
    • Channels that open when an NT attaches to them
    • Ionotropic effect.
  27. Naloxone
    • Presynaptic Antagonist
    • Blocks opiate mu receptors
    • Anti-narcotic
    • Treats heroin/opiate overdose
    • Replaces heroin that binds to receptors, dillutes, replaces it
  28. PreSynaptic Agonists
    • L-Dopa
    • ANYTHING THAT PROLONGS ACTIVITY
    • Prozac blocks seretonin reuptake
    • Cocaine blocks reuptake of DA & NE
    • AcHe inhibitors - inhibit enzyme that inhibits acetycholine
  29. POSTsynaptic Agonists
    • Apomorphine** (binds to D2 receptor, acts like DA)
    • Heroin (stimulates mu - opiate receptors)
    • Benzos (causes GABA increase)
  30. PREsynaptic Antagonist
    Apomorphine** (Prefers PRE than POST receptor, LITTLE- binds & turns DOWN DA. A LOT - turns OFF DA, ACTS LIKE DA) Different affects depending on amount
  31. POSTsynaptic Antagonist
    • Bicuculline (blocks GABA receptors)
    • Naloxone (Anti narcotic)
  32. Acetylcholine
    • Controls EVERY muscle
    • Chemical. Similar to an amino acid.

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