adage, aphorism, apothegm, epigram, epigraph, maxim, proverb, saying
"Once burned, twice shy" is an old saying about learning from your mistakes. In fact, sayings - a term used to describe any current or habitual expression or wisdom or truth - are a dime a dozen. Proverbs - sayings that are well known and often repeated, usually expressing metaphorically a truth based on common sense or practical experience - are just as plentiful. Her favorite proverb was "A stitch in time saves nine." An adage is a time-honored and widely known proverb, such as "Where's there's smoke, there's fire." A maxim offers a rule of conduct or action in the form of a proverb, such as "Neither a borrower nor a lender be." Epigram and epigraph are often confused, but their meanings are quite separate. An epigram is a terse, witty, or satirical statement that often relies on a paradox of its effect: Oscar Wilde's well-known epigram that "The only way to get rid of temptation is to yield to it." An epigraph, on the other hand, is a brief quotation used to introduce a piece of writing: he used quote from the T. S. Eliot as the epigraph to his new novel. An aphorism requires a little more thought than an epigram, since it aims to be profound rather than witty: as one of Solomon's aphorisms warn, "Better is a living dog than a dead lion." An apothegm is a pointed and often startling aphorism, such as Samuel Johnson's remark that "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel."