Abnormal Psych - Sexual Dysfunctions etc... (Ch. 12)

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  1. 1750s theory from Simon Tissot
    Degeneracy Theory
  2. Degeneracy Theory
    • Simon Tissot, 1750s
    • Based on castration studies, concluded that semen was necessary for physical and sexual vigor and masculine characteristics
    • Led to concern that masturbation and patronizing prostitutes were harmful
  3. 1830s theory from Sylvester Graham and John Harvey Kellog
    Abstinence theory
  4. Sylvester Graham and John Harvey Kellog
    Argued for abstinence theory in the 1830s
  5. 20th century Indiana biologist whose findings about sexual behavior were especially significant
    Alfred Kinsey
  6. 1994 survey about sexual behavior
  7. People who studied direct observations of human sexual behavior and defined the sexual response cycle
    Masters and Johnson
  8. Masters and Johnson
    • Published data based on direct observations of human sexual behavior
    • Defined the sexual response cycle
  9. 3 Stages of Sexual Response Cycle
    • Excitement
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution
  10. NHSLS Finding: Masturbation is _________
    Common among males and females
  11. Sexual problems (increase/decrease) with age
  12. Most frequent form of male sexual dysfunction
    Premature ejaculation
  13. Higher in men or women?
    -Low desire
    -Arousal problem
    -Lack of orgasm
    -Rapid orgasm
    -Pain during sex
    • Women
    • Women
    • Women
    • Men
    • Women
  14. Two diagnostic criteria for all sexual dysfunctions
    • Symptoms for at least 6 months
    • Marked distres for person experiencing them
  15. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
    Persistent or recurrent lack of desire for sex and deficient/absent erotic thoughts or fantasies regarding sexual activities
  16. ________ factors are most largely implicated in male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
  17. Most people seeking treatment for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (do/do not) report other forms of sexual dysfunction
  18. Treatment for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
    • Bupropion
    • Sensate training
    • No well-established psychotherapies
  19. Male Erectile Disorder
    Difficulties in obtaining or maintaining an erection
  20. Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder
    Absence or reduced frequency/intensity of interest in or response to sexual cues
  21. Female Orgasmic Disorder
    Either marked delay or infrequency of or absence of orgasm OR reduced intensity of orgasmic sensations
  22. Early Ejaculation
    • Persistent and recurrent onset of orgasm and ejaculation within 1 min of vaginal penetration OR before person wishes it
    • Associated with anxiety and embarrassment
  23. Delayed Ejaculation
    Delayed ejaculation, basically
  24. Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder
    Describes genito-pelvic pain, fear of pain or vaginal penetration, tension of the pelvic floor muscles, and trouble having intercourse
  25. Dyspareunia
    Recurrent or persistent genital pain after intercourse
  26. Dyspareunia occurs in (men/women/both)
  27. Dyspareunia is more common in (men/women)
  28. Treatment of dyspareunia
    • CBT
    • Education
    • Vaginal dilation exercises
    • PMR (progressive muscle relaxation)
  29. Vaginismus
    • Recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of vagina musculature that interferes with sexual intercourse
    • "Closes" whenever penetration is attempted
  30. Treatment of vaginismus
    Ban intercourse, train vaginal muscles, graduated self-insertion of vaginal dilators
  31. Biologically, sexual desire is influenced by ___________ for both women and men
    sex hormones
  32. Sexual Dysfunction: Psychological Factors
    • Relationship problems
    • Role of mental scripts learned throughout childhood and adolescence
  33. Drugs and alcohol have (positive/negative) effects on sexual arousal
  34. Sambia of Papua New Guniea - What do they do? What are the two main beliefs influencing this practice?
    10-20% of men practice homosexuality in context of male initiation ritual

    • Two Main Beliefs:
    • 1. Semen conservation
    • 2. Female pollution
  35. Sensate focus
    Series of simple exercises in which a couple spends time in a quiet, relaxed setting, learning to touch each other
  36. Primary targets of psychological approaches to treating sexual dysfunction?
    • Sensate focus
    • Education and cognitive restructuring
    • Communication training
  37. Biological treatments of sexual dysfunction?
    • Men: primarily medication (Viagra), penile implants
    • Women: medications being developed to increase sexual desire
  38. Paraphilia
    Any intense and persistent sexual interest other than sexual interest in genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with a phenotypically normal, physically mature, consenting human partner
  39. Paraphilic Disorders
    A paraphilia that either leads to subjective distress or social impairment for the person or that causes harm to, or threatens, other people
  40. Paraphilic Disorders: preoccupation must have lasted at least _______ months
  41. Fetishistic Disorder
    Sexual arousal involving non-living objects or non-genital body parts
  42. Transvestic Disorder
    • Cross-dressing for the purpose of sexual arousal
    • NOT drag queens
  43. Transvestic disorder occurs mostly in __________
    heterosexual males
  44. Sexual Masochism Disorder
    Arousal, etc. from being made to suffer in some way
  45. Sexual Sadism Disorder
    • Arousal, etc. by inflicting suffering on another person
    • Power and control
  46. Significant overlap among these three major types of paraphilia:
    • Fetishism
    • Sadism/Masochism
    • Transvestic
  47. Exhibitionistic Disorder
    • Arousal, etc. from showing your genitals to a stranger
    • Intend to shock the observer
  48. Exhibitionistic disorder occurs almost entirely in (males/females)
  49. Voyeuristic Disorder
    • Spying on unsuspecting person who is naked/undressing/engaging in sexual activity
    • "Peeping"
  50. Frotteuristic Disorder
    Touching or rubbing genitals against other, non-consenting people (usually in crowded places)
  51. Pedophilic Disorder
    Arousal, etc. involving children
  52. For someone to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder, they must be at least ______ y/o and at least ______ years older than victim(s)
    • 16
    • 5
  53. Compared to other sex offenders, pedophilics have (higher/lower) IQs
  54. Compared to other sex offenders, pedophilics are more likely to be (right-handed/left-handed)
  55. Compared to other sex offenders, pedophilics have (higher/lower) rates of head injuries
  56. Four types of rapists
    • Sadistic: sexual and violent impulses
    • Non-sadistic: sexual but not violent
    • Vindictive: non-sexual, aggression towards women
    • Opportunistic: non-sexual, impulsive and possibly psychopathic behavior
  57. Paraphilias: Biological Causes
    • Some focus on endocrine system
    • Neurological abnormalities in limbic system
    • Pedophiles and exhibitionists: subtle dysfunction in left temporal lobe
  58. Paraphilias: Social Causes
    • Distortions in normal mating process (courtship disorders)
    • Problems in social relationships/interpersonal skills
  59. Treatment of Paraphilias
    • Aversion Therapy
    • CBT
    • Drugs - to reduce testosterone; antidepressants/antianxiety
  60. Within 4 yrs of completing CBT for paraphilias, men were (more/less/equally) likely to be arrested for another sexual offense and (more/less/equally) likely to be arrested for a violent offense
    • Equally
    • Less
  61. Drugs to treat paraphilias
    • Cyproterone acetate: blocks effects of testosterone
    • Triptorelin: reduces testosterone
  62. Megan's Law
    Sexual offenders have to tell people they are sexual offenders
  63. Sexual Predator Laws
    Keep some offenders in custody indefinitely
  64. Legal complication with paraphilias
    Balancing public safety with offenders' constitutional rights
  65. Gender Dysphoria
    • Sense of discomfort with one's anatomical sex
    • Men feel like women, women feel like men
    • Aka¬†transsexualism
  66. (Male-to-female/Female-to-male) transsexuals are more common
  67. Gender dysphoria is (rare/common)
  68. Pseudohermaphroditism
    • Genetically male, but fail to produce a hormone that shapes the penis and scrotum in the fetus
    • Raised as girls typically, but by puberty, increase in testosterone leads to more masculine appearance, and they change to consider themselves male
  69. Causes of Gender Dysphoria?
    • Poorly understood
    • Maybe sex hormones, based on studies of pseudohermaphroditism
  70. Sexual Orientation in Gender Dysphoria
    • Males may be attracted to males, females, both, neither
    • Females most likely attracted to females
  71. Treatment of Gender Dysphoria
    • Sex-reassignment surgery
    • Psychotherapies are not effective
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Abnormal Psych - Sexual Dysfunctions etc... (Ch. 12)
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