SBH3UE - Unit 1: Evolution (Part II: Charles Darwin and Natural Selection)

Card Set Information

Author:
Oddishii
ID:
271726
Filename:
SBH3UE - Unit 1: Evolution (Part II: Charles Darwin and Natural Selection)
Updated:
2014-04-24 01:50:30
Tags:
mr rick poop evolution sbi3ue biology
Folders:

Description:
sdf
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Oddishii on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Leonardo Da Vinci's theory
    Old sea shell deposits came from an ancient ocean, therefore earth's surface changed dramatically
  2. Baron George Cuvier's observations
    Organisms in older deposits were more simple - recent deposits had more complex organisms

    Organisms in more recent deposits looked more like currently living things
  3. Baron George Cuvier's theory
    Catastrophism - Global catastrophies wiped out species and newer, more complex species took place
  4. Problems with catastrophism
    Althogub accounted for the new species above the extinct fossils, could not account for the complexity
  5. James Hutton's theory
    Actualism -  geological changes happening in present happened in past too
  6. Geological changes happening in present happened in past too
    Actualism - James Hutton
  7. Global catastrophies wiped out species and newer, more complex species took place
    Catastrophism - Baron George Cuvier
  8. What background is James Hutton
    SCOTTISH
  9. Charles Lyell's theory
    Uniformitarianism - Earth's surface has always changed and continues to change through similiar, gradual, and uniform processes
  10. Earth's surface has always changed and continues to change through similiar, gradual, and uniform processes
    Uniformitarianism - Charles Lyell
  11. George Buffon's theory
    Species can change overtime and these small changes add up to big changes
  12. Species can change overtime and these small changes add up to big changes
    Georges Buffon's theory
  13. Carl Linnaeus' theory
    few species had formed new species through interbreeding
  14. few species had formed new species through interbreeding
    Carl Linnaeus's theory
  15. Who is the founder of biological nomenclature?
    Carl Linnaeus
  16. Erasmus Darwin's theory
    all life on earth come from a single origin
  17. all life on earth come from a single origin
    Erasmus Darwin
  18. Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamark's theory
    Environment plays a part in evolution; inheritance of acquired traits - changes acquired by an organism as a result of adaptation to changing environmental conditions during that organism's life time could be inherited by future generations
  19. Who discovered that environment played a part in evolution?
    Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamark
  20. In order for living things to adapt to a changing environment they must acquire a beneficial trait which will be passed on to future generations
    Inheritance of acquired traits - Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamark
  21. Talk about Charles Darwin's Voyage to Discovery lolwat
    August 24, 1831 Charles Darwin is asked by his Reverend John Henslow to go on a voyage to South America on the HMS Beagle

    oyage lasted for 5 years instead of 2

    Captain Robert FitzRoy's mission: survey and map the coastal waters of South America for the British navy

    Darwin's role: find evidence for biblical creation by observing specimens on rocks and shit, which he then shipped to England 

    While in Patagonia, he found fossils that resembled the armadillo and sloth and was right. He proposed that these fossils were ancestral forms of the living organisms

    While in Galapagos he found plants and animals that looked like ones in SA but unique. 25 of the 2 species were found different; Darwin concluded that a single ancestor from a nearby land made similar but distinct land species

    As well, mammals that could survive with no food or freshwater inhabited that island. Mammals who couldnt DIED
  22. Natural selection
    process by which heritable traits make it more likely for an organism to survive and reproduce become more common in a population
  23. What process results in adaptations that specialize organisms, emerging new species?
    Any alleles that give an organism an advantage will increase in frequency over the following generations, resulting in adaptations in ecological niches, resulting in an emergence of new species.
  24. Evolution by natural selection requires:
    • Variation: differences in population
    • Inheritance: differences must be heritable
    • Differential adaptedness: differences must allow individuals of a species to be adapted to their environment
    • Differential reproduction: individuals who are better adapted will reproduce and their offspring will have a greater population
  25. What does fitness mean in terms of evolution?
    Individuals who are more fit have a better potential for survival

    Fitness is measured by how successful it is at reproducing
  26. What are the three types of natural selection?
    Stabilizing, directional, and disruptive
  27. Stabilizing selection
    The intermediate phenotype is favoured and the extremes are selected against
  28. The intermediate phenotype is favoured and the extremes are selected against
    Stabilizing selection
  29. Example of stabilizing selection?
    Birth weight in humans - the intermediate weight (3.1 - 3.8 kg) for babies have a lower death rate. Babies at the extremes will die bc premature or too heavy
  30. Directional selection
    Natural selection that favours one extreme and selects against the other extreme

    Usually occurs when organisms are adapting to a changing environment
  31. Natural selection that favours one extreme and selects against the other extreme
    Directional selection
  32. Example of directional selection
    Gradual increase of size of the modern horse

    Gill net fishing made the average weight of salmon to go down do they can escape
  33. Disruptive selection
    Favours the extremes and selects against the intermediate phenotype
  34. Favours the extremes and selects against the intermediate phenotype
    Disruptive selection
  35. Example of disruptive selection?
    African finches depend on the seeds of two different types of sedge plants - soft seed and one the hard seed. Small bills eat soft, large bills eat hard No intermediate
  36. In general, what is evidence of natural selection that explains microevolution?
    Changes in the environment -> changes in allele frequencies
  37. Explain how sickle cell anemia explains microevolution
    Sickle cell in American blacks is 8%, while in Central Africa it's 46%. It is higher in Central Africa as sickle cell can be seen as advantageous as those who are carriers for sickle cell are less susceptible to malaria. Those who do not have sickle cell will get malaria and die, leaving sickle cell. Selection is in favour of the S allele

    As well, in North America, where malaria isn't a huge problem, eradicating the S allele is selection. Those who are homozygous for sickle cell almost never reproduce

    This proves adaptation to the environment of certain alleles - in Central Africa, selection is in favour of the S allele as it is advantageous, whereas in North America selection acts against the S allele
  38. Explain how peppered moths explain micro evolution
    In the 1850s, light coloured moths were more common, and as time went on, darker moths increased in frequency in industrial centres until they dominated everywhere

    In industrial regions, dark mothers were more common bc birds couldn't find them, and vice versa for light moths

    There was an increase in the frequency in the dark allele because it became more advantageous in hiding from birds as time went on. 

    Kettlewell experimented this by releasing moths into the polluted Birmingham and the unpolluted Dorset and then left traps to see who would survive. In Birmingham, 19% light moths were trapped and 40% dark moths were trapped. The dark moths were trapped whereas most of the light moths probably gotten eaten. In the unpolluted 1.5% light moths and 6% dark; light moths had a better chance of survival

    When pollution became more controlled, the moths increasingly became more light coloured, showing changes of allele frequencies of natural populations due to natural selection
  39. What is industrial melanism?
    Evolutionary process when light populations will be replaced by darker populations by natural selection
  40. Evolutionary process when light populations will be replaced by darker populations by natural selection
    Industrial melanism
  41. What do sickle cell anemia and the industrial melanism show in terms of evolution?
    Changes in environment occur which prefers/favours a specific phenotype and the allele that codes for said phenotype become more frequent
  42. True or false: species can interbreed
    false
  43. True or false: species can't interbreed
    true
  44. What are reproductive isolating mechanisms?
    any structual biochemical/social traits that prevents species from mating with members of other species
  45. Name the reproductive isolating mechanisms?
    prezygotic mechanisms and postzygotic mechanisms
  46. Name the six types of prezygotic mechanisms
    • Geological [Isolation]
    • Ecological
    • Temporal
    • Behavioural
    • Mechanical
    • Gametic

    Great Earthly Theresa Begins Mating Germs
  47. Name the three types of postzygotic mechanisms
    • Zygotic Mortality
    • Hybrid Inviability
    • Hybrid Infertility
  48. Geological Isolation
    species are living in different areas :(

    Deer and gazelles live in different continents NO LONG DISTANCE RELATIONSHIPS
  49. Ecological isolation
    even if same area, different ecological niches

    toads like inland, frogs like water MOIST
  50. Temporal isolation
    different breeding seasons

    frogs breed at different times dawggie
  51. Behavioural isolation
    Species will use different mating signals 

    male perigrine falcons do soemthing cool for female perigrine falcons
  52. Mechanical isolation
    reproductive organs too incompatible dawggie

    try having an elephant penis
  53. Gametic isolation
    prevention of fusion of gametes 

    sperm just cant live inside da female like coral reefs
  54. Zygotic mortality
    no fertilized zygotes develop or die

    sheep and goat embryos DIE
  55. Hybrid mortality
    hybrids wont live long :(
  56. Hybrid infertility
    they cant reproduce dawggie

    poor mule
  57. What is speciation?
    When one species gives rise to two species
  58. What are the steps to speciation?
    Geographical isolation and reproductive isolation.

    Eventually the two groups will evolve differently because each gene pool is smaller so more variation can pass on, and each gene pool has its own mutations and recombination of alleles that lead to the variation, esp. when adding the different environments

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview