Biology test 4

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  1. How do you form a carbohydrate?
    • Carbon source
    • Electron source
    • Energy source
  2. In photosynthesis, what is the carbon source?
  3. In photosynthesis, what is the electron source?
  4. In photosynthesis, what is the energy source?
  5. What is the function of pigments?
    Absorb energy from light
  6. What is the main accessory pigment?
    Chlorophyll a
  7. Transpiration
    Evaporation of H20 from leaf surfaces
  8. What are examples of photosynthetic "sinks"
    • Roots
    • flowers and fruits
    • woody stem
  9. Photorespiration
    When a plant gets too dry and must close its stomata to conserve H2O, which limits photosynthesis, it creates a build up of 02.
  10. What do CAM plants do to deal with dehydration?
    They open their stomata at night, incorporating C02 into organic acids. Stomata close during the day, and C02 is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin Cycle; temporal separation
  11. What is the "normal" type of photosynthesis?
  12. Totipotent
    Cells that are able to divide to become anything
  13. Pluripotent
    Cells that are able to divide into specific cells
  14. What are the aspects of gene expression?
    • Cell division
    • Cell migration
    • Cell differentiation
    • Controlled cell death (apoptosis)
  15. Functions of chromatin
    • Structural or packing proteins (histones)
    • Gene expression
    • replication¬†
    • repair
  16. Somatic cells
    Non-reproductive cells that have two sets of chromosomes
  17. What are the two elements that make up the maturation promoting factor?
    Cyclins and Kinases
  18. Growth factors
    External signal, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate cells to divide
  19. Density-dependent inhibition
    Crowded cells stop dividing
  20. Anchorage dependence
    Cells must be attached to a substratum in order to divide
  21. Transformation
    When a normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell
  22. What are the phases of Interphase?
    • G1: first gap; preparation for DNA synthesis
    • S: synthesis; DNA replication
    • G2: second gap
  23. What are the stages of mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  24. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
    Phenotypical traits have a physical location and can be followed
  25. How do prokaryotic cells divide their cells?
    Binary fission
  26. What are the pros/cons of asexual reproduction?
    • Pro: fast; no genetic partner required
    • Con: no genetic variation
  27. What are the pros/cons of sexual reproduction?
    • Pro: genetic variation
    • Con: requires partner; slow; energetically demanding
  28. What are the aspects of Meiosis?
    • Reduce genetic material by half (reduction division)
    • Recombination
    • -Crossing-over (synapsis/chiasmata)
    • -Independent assortment
  29. Homologous chromosomes are the same in regards to ____ but different in regards to ____
    • -Length, shape, centromere position same traits, same gene order, and same corresponding loci
    • -Alleles
Card Set:
Biology test 4
2014-04-24 05:54:18

Photosynthesis and cell division
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