Bio Final: Seeds (1)

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  1. All of the vascular plants that exist can be divided into __(which we just talked about) and the __. There are a lot of similarities between them. They are the __plants. Can be divided into __ and __
    • non-seed 
    • seed producing vascular plants
    • dominant 
    • gymnosperms (naked seeds) and angiosperms (seesd enclosed in a fruit)
  2. Structure of non-seed and seed
    • a.       Non-seed:
    •                                                                i.      Ex: Fern:
    • 1.       Leaves, stems, roots
    • b.      Seed
    •                                                                i.      Flower
    • 1.       Leaves stem roots
    • Basically, no difference
  3. What is the seed plants advantage over nonseeds and why?

    • 1) can live dormant for a long time
    • 2) conditions promote longevity of seeds
    • 3) seeds can lie around until environmental conditions are right
    • 4) no water needed
    • 5) as the embryo develops, it gets food and protection from parent
  4. Dormancy of seeds 
           They can live __for a long time; how long depends on a plant. Average viability of a seed is about __ (some don’t live very long at all; maples are viable for at most 2 weeks)

                                                                                                                                           i.      Non seed produce by __and they don’t live very long
    1.       Once released from plant, they __
    • dormant 
    • 3 years
    • spores 
    • they don’t live long
  5. Conditions that promote longevity of seeds
    • dry
    • low temp (cool)
    • lox oxygen
    • can be kept in freezers
  6. Waiting for proper environmental conditions
    • a.       The seeds can hang around just lying there until the environmental conditions are right for that young plant to survive
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      Often there are chemicals in the seed itself that are washed out by rain itself; otherwise, they don’t grow
  7. No need for water
    • a.       Seed plants don’t need water for fertilization or pollination
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      Sperm will get there some other way
    •                                                                                                                                      ii.      Allows seed plants to expand into habitats that other plants can’t survive
  8. Parental supply
    a.       As the embryo is developing, the young embryo and developing seed will get food from parent plant and have protection around it while its developing
  9. Three basic categories of plants
    •                                                                i.       Annuals
    • 1.       Seed to seed in one growing season
    • a.       Seeds germinate in springà plant growsà by the spring, all you have are seeds
    •                                                              ii.      Biennials
    • 1.       Plants live two years; don’t flower or produce seeds during the first year
    •                                                             iii.      Perennial
    • 1.       Plants live year after year
  10. Ancestral plants to these were __
  11. What are the requirements inf seeds were going to evolve? (7)
    •                                                                i.      Heterospory
    • 1.       Basically, the fact that the plant is male and female (separate male and female); that’s what matters, not the size
    •                                                              ii.      Endosporal; otherwise, seeds wouldn’t have evolved
    •                                                             iii.      Megaspore remains in megasporangium: if seeds were going to evolve, the megaspores had to stay inside
    •                                                            iv.      Continued supply of food to the female gametophyte (which will be inside the seed)
    •                                                              v.      Independence from water
    •                                                            vi.      Enclosure of the megasporangium: it is protected itself by the tissue of the sporophyte; will develop into what is called the seed coat
    •                                                           vii.      Ability to remain dormant
  12. __ meets some but not all
  13. What does Selaginella have?
    •                                                                i.      Is heterosporous and has endosporal development while meiospores and within megasporangium
    •                                                              ii.      Early development of embryo
  14. What doesn't Selaginella have?
    •                                                                i.      Doesn’’t have continuous supply of food
    •                                                              ii.      A tissue that acts as seed coat
    •                                                             iii.      Independence from water
    •                                                            iv.      Dormancy
  15. Parts of a Seed
    • endosperm
    • seed coat
    • embryo
  16. Parts of the Plant:
    a.       __, which is an immature seed
    b.      Around the outside of the ovule is __ called __, which eventually develop into a __
    a.       __of seed coat depends on plant

    • Ovule
    • tissue of the parent sporophyte called integument
    • seed coat
    • Consistency
  17. Parts of the Plant:

    a.       The __is the megasporangium (in seed plants, the __ is called the __)
    a.       Theres not much left of it; it becomes very thin
    b.      In the center of the ovule is the __
    a.       At one end are the __
    • nucellus 
    • megasporangium
    • nucellus
    • female gametophyte
    • archegonium
  18. Parts of the Plants:

    Explain the orientation of the archegonium
    • 1.       When the tissue of the parent sporophyte comes around the megasporangium, there’s an opening at the end, There has to be an opening
    • a.       There’s a micropile which is where the archegonium are at
    • This opening is needed for sperm
  19. In the archegonium is the __.

    What's different about this archegonium than non-seed?
    • egg
    • doesn't have a large neck
  20. In the gymnosperm seed,
    -          The female gametophyte becomes the __
    o   It is called the __.
    • food
    • Endosperm
  21. I.                    Development of the Ovule
    a.       __was the first structure that evolved into __ with __ and __
    b.      The next step of evolution was the formation of __
    • Homospory 
    • heterospory
    • microspores and megaspores
    • megasporangium
  22. Explain the formation of the megasporangium
    •                                                                i.      Four megaspores are produced and three disintegrate so that, in the megasporangium, you end up with a single functional megaspore
    •                                                              ii.      The tissue grows around the megaspore and encloses it
    • 1.       Advantage of integumentary lobes growing around the megasporangium (separate; not fused)
    • a.       Advantage of this are going to be pollen grains that go around the structure and enable them to sift down
    • b.      Protection
Card Set:
Bio Final: Seeds (1)
2014-04-24 12:12:54
Plant Kingdom
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