Bio Final: Seeds (3) {Cycads}

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  1. a.       Not the largest genus of a group called __, which also include __ and __
                                                                   i.      __ genera of cycads (not as large as conifers); may be the __ of gymnosperms
    1.       May be __ divided up among the genera
    • gymnosperms
    • conifers and gingko
    • 11
    • second largest genus
    • 185 species
  2. a.       Only one native to US: __; found in florida
    b.      Location: __
                                                                   i.      Warm areas
    c.       When did they reach their peak? __
                                                                   i.      Show some adaptations for __ and __ when the climate was cooler
    • Zamia integrifolia
    • tropical or subtropical locations such as central American, the top of S. America, and the mid to southern area of Africa
    • About 170 million years ago
    • dry climates
    • grew in size
  3. a.       Probably come from __, which werent’ __, but gave rise to all __
                                                                   i.      Theory: also could have come from __
    b.      Why is it considered an evolutionary dead end?
    c.       Like all seed producing plants, the __ is the dominant

    Homo or hetero?
    • progymnosperms
    • seed producing plants
    • seed-producing plants
    • seed ferns
    • not related to any other groups at all in terms of being an ancestor
    • sporophyte
    • Heterosporous
  4. Structure
    - Stems
    - Height
    - Growth rate
    •                                                                i.      Stems very short; very rough stems
    • 1.       In some respects, they are shaped like a tulip bulb: braod at the base and come to a tip at the top
    •                                                              ii.      Can be tall or short (can reach top of greenhouse)
    •                                                             iii.      Grow slowly
  5. Structure
    - trunk 
    - leaves
    •                                                                i.      Trunk can be used to estimate the age
    •                                                              ii.      Leaves are compound
    • 1.       Leaves are said to be pinnately compound (pinnate)
    • a.       Has leaflets and are arranged in the same way a feather is
    • 2.       Other leaves are palmate compound
    • a.       All leaflets come off the tip
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      AVOID PLANTS THAT HAVE THREE LEAFLETS
  6. Structure
    - leaflets
    •                                                                i.      The leaflets, in the case of cycads, are really tough, almost leathery; have a lot of fibers in them
    • 1.       This group prob evolved under climatic conditions that are fairly dry
  7. Adaptations of Cycads
    •                                                                i.      They have a cuticle (waxy covering on top of leaf)
    • 1.       Thick cuticle which retards water loss
    • a.       This is an adaptation
    •                                                              ii.      Sometimes, they have stomates, which also retard water loss
    • 1.       Another adapatation to a fairly dry environment
  8.                                                                i.      Leaves can stay on plant for a __ 
           Some show a __; not all __ to the extent that ferns do

    a.       The leaflets show this __
    • couple of years or a few years
    • weak circinate vernation
    • coil
    • ciircinate vernation
  9. Structure cont. 

    •                                                                i.      Segments of treelike stems is the base of a leaf; when a leaf dies, it leaves a base
    • 1.       This makes the stem very rough to the point where other plants can live in the cracks
    • 2.       Counting the leaf bases determines the age
  10. Structure cont. 

    • 1.       Fleshy roots: major roots (primary)
    • 2.       Coralloid roots: grow on the surface
    • a.       What you find in these roots is cyanobacteria; symbiosis
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      Advantage of these cyanobacteria: nitrogen fixation, which will supply the cycad with nitrogen
    • b.      Most have this kind of root
  11. Basically, what is the structure? 

    Do cycads have fast or slow growth?
    true everything

  12. a.       Can come in __ and __ plants
                                                                   i.      Both male and female produce __
    • male and female
    • cones/ strobili
  13. Explain female cones and male cones.
    • 1.       Female has a tougher covering; cone scales are modified leaves)
    • 2.       Male cone is slender and the female cone is a lot more stout and wide
    • a.       Probably because the female has to produce seeds
  14. a.       Cycas revoluta does not __; it only __
                                                                   i.      Located in Florida; grow __
                                                                 ii.      More common name is __ 
                                                                iii.      Females are not made in __; leaflike
    1.       Has __on them; multiple are made on the __
    2.       __: The position of these depends on the plant
    a.       Can be on the __ of the plant or __
    3.       The seeds may be __
    • produce female cones
    • produces male cones
    • slowly
    • Sago palm (not a palm)
    • strobili
    • ovules 
    • leaves
    • Megasporophylls
    • center
    • around the vegetative leaves
    • bright colors
  15. a.       Structure of male cone in cross section
                                                                   i.      You’ll find a lot of __on the __
    b.      The cone scales and cone produce a __
    c.       How do the male get to the female?  (gametophytes)
                                                                   i.      __
    1.       Plants are pollinated by __
    • microsponrangia 
    • underside
    • huge amount of pollen
    • Wind and bugs
    • insects
  16. a.       Cycads have __
                                                                   i.      Can be __ and __
                                                                 ii.      The stems can be eaten, but they must be prepared properly to ensure that the __
    • toxins
    • carcinogens and mutagens
    • toxins are gotten rid of
  17. 1.       They are __(stems and seeds)
    a.       They have __that store in the tissue of animals, like the flying fox bat, which caused problems for people who ate these bats
                                                                 ii.      Can cause __problems
    • starchy 
    • neurotoxins
    • GI
Card Set:
Bio Final: Seeds (3) {Cycads}
2014-04-24 13:32:01
Plant Kingdom
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