Bio Final: Seeds (4) {Conifers}

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Bio Final: Seeds (4) {Conifers}
2014-05-03 21:38:51
Plant Kingdom
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  1. a.       The __ that would be considered gymnosperms
    b.      __genera, __species
    c.       Most commonly used as __
    d.      Important economically
                                                                   i.      Really important source of __
    1.       __ for framing for houses
    • largest of the phyla
    • 50 
    • 550 
    • ornamentals
    • lumber
    • Pine wood
  2. a.       Several different ones, such as __(8)__ etc.
    b.      __in shape, not always but they often are because what?
    • pine, redwoods, bald cypress (native to swamps), juniper, larch, yew, red cedar, arbor vitae,
    • Conical 
    • the bud at the top of the main trunk tends to suppress main stems below it
  3. Explain further the reason for the shape.
    •                                                                i.      Some plants suppress them to a large extent until they are a certain distance away at which point they will grow
    •                                                              ii.      Buds have to get a certain distance away before they start to grow
    • 1.       The buds at the bottom are longer because they grow first
  4. a.       All __(NO EXCEPTION); they produce __ and have __
                                                                   i.      Shrubs and trees, regardless, are all __
    1.       One ring of wood per year
    • woody 
    • wood and have annual rings
    • woody
  5. Leaves: 
    - Two ways
    • 1.       Long stem and leaves attached to it directly
    • 2.       Leaves grouped on short side stems
    • a.       Leaves + short side stems are called fascicles
  6. Leaves
    - difference in size of the leaves
    • 1.       Can be long and needle-shaped
    • 2.       Can be very small and short (may be covering stems); scalelike
    • a.       Each small segment is an entire leaf
  7.                                                                i.      Every conifer is a __; there are no __ at all
                                                                 ii.      If you push the leaves together, you end up with a __
    1.       If you have different __, you have different cross sections that form a nice neat circle
    a.       Cross sectional shape depends on __
    • simple leaf
    • compounded leaves
    • circular structure
    • fascicles
    • how many needles are in a fascicle
  8. a.       Some are __; but, others are __(leaves fall off basically at the same time)
                                                                   i.      Needles are lost after they turn yellow
    b.      Most conifers do __, but they __
                                                                   i.      Leaves can stay on for up to __years
    1.       Leaves lost more in the spring
    • evergreen
    • deciduous 
    • lose their leaves
    • lose them continuously; not at the same time
    • ten
  9. a.       Male reproductive structure: __
                                                                   i.      Each cone scale produces a __
    1.       Each cone scale is a __
                                                                 ii.      They release a __
                                                                iii.      Very __, meaning __
    • cones
    • certain number of microsporangia
    • microsporophyll
    • lot of pollen
    • transient
    • form in the spring; shed their pollen; dry up and fall off
  10.                                                                i.      Pine pollen grains have a characteristic shape
    1.       Structure shows __
    2.       Typically, a pollen grain that’s released can have __
    a.       Similar structure to cycad pollen
    3.       Can be up to __

    a.       Usually, as the pollen grain develops, the __
    • that they get dispersed by wind; they appear to have wings
    • up to four cells
    • two prothallial cells
    • prothallial cells get crushed up against microspore wall
  11. 1.       Once they get into an ovule, the same thing happens as in cycads           
    a.       Pollen tube elongates and migrates down b.      Eventually, the generative cell divides directly into two sperm
  12. What is different in conifers than cycads?
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      A step missing that is present in cycads
    • 1.       No body cell; no stalk cell; the generative cell just divides
    • 2.       Debate: are these ‘sperm’ nuclei?
    • b.      Germinates before megaspore site ever begins dividing at all (which is the same as cycads)
  13. a.       Female cones develop __
                                                                   i.      Male cone do what?
                                                                 ii.      In a typical pine, it takes about __for female cone to develop
    1.       __

           Seeds are fairly __
    • much more slowly than male cones
    • forms in spring and pollen grains and drops off tree
    • 2.5 years 
    • Start to develop in spring and summer of one year and finally mature in the spring and summer or winter and fall of the year after
  14.                                                                i.      In female, the cone scale is considered a __
    1.       The reason for that is due to __
                                                                 ii.      In contrast, the male cone scale is considered a __
                                                                iii.      Megasporocyte: __
    1.       Forms __
    • modified branch
    • the bract (a modified leaf that is found right underneath a reproductive structure)
    • modified leaf
    • cell that is bigger than all of the others
    • four megaspores; three disintegrate
  15.                                                                i.      Pollen grains found in the __ prior to __
                                                                 ii.      In most conifers, the male and female cones are __

    a.       This is different from cycads, which have __ of the cone scale with no surrounding
    -- Seeds __

    • pollen chamber
    • meiosis
    • produced on the same plant
    • different plants
    • sit on the top of the cone scale with no surrounding
  16.                                                                i.      Advantage of having cone scales that are fused together in the 17 month period
    • 1.       the 6 month, the cone scales are open
    • a.       Why: the pollen needs to be able to reach the ovule
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      The micropyle faces the center of the cone so the cone scales have to be separate from each other
    • 2.       Advantage of 17 month period: protection
    • 3.       Opens up again to allow the seeds to get out
    •                                                              ii.      Ovule has same basic structure as the cycad
  17. a.       Sperm produced by conifer has no __, so the pollen tube has to __
                                                                   i.      __sperm produced but only __
    b.      Seeds: __
    c.       Some cones don’t have to be opened up, but what opens them up is __
    • flagella
    • grow into the archegonium to get to the egg
    • Two 
    • one used
    • a majority have a wing; others don’t; called pine nuts (not true nuts)
    • intense heat, such as that of a fire, which opens them up, allowing them to drop their seeds and replace the seeds that diie
  18. a.       Coastal redwoods include the __trees
                                                                   i.      Found on the __
                                                                 ii.      These trees have a __ that extends way out from the tree
    1.       Adjacent redwoods do what?
                                                                iii.      Giant sequoia and coastal redwoods are very different
    1.       __are different
    • tallest 
    • coast of California (San Francisco)
    • shallow root system
    • intertwine their roots
    • Leaves
  19. a.       Yew (taxus)
                                                                   i.      Male and Female

    1.       Produces __, but does not __

    a.       Produces __ with an __                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ii.      The whole plant, especially the red part, is __
    1.       Has __
    a.       If you plant female plants, kids are attracted to the red part. The red part isn’t poisonous, but the __ and __ are
    • Separate male and female plant
    • male cones
    • produce female cones
    • individual seeds
    • Extra fleshy layer around it that is bright red
    • extremely toxic
    • alkaloids
    • seeds and leaves
  20. a.       Juniper
                                                                   i.      Used a lot as __
                                                                 ii.      Produce __
                                                                iii.      Female cones don’t look like __, but instead look like __; called Juniper berries (used to flavor gin); __
    b.      Most conifers produce __because of the __, which are located in the __
    • ornamentals
    • both male and female cones
    • cones
    • berries
    • fleshy cone
    • resin  
    • resin canals
    • stems and leaves
  21.                                                                i.      Why is resin produced?
    1.       __
    2.       __
    a.       If you damage a conifer stem, you will see resin sticking out that will cover over the wound
    b.      If the resin hardens, you end up with __, which is used for jewelry; before it solidifies, it’s really sticky 
    • Probably a good fungicide and insecticide
    • Covers over wounds
    • amber
  22.                                                                                                                                        i.      Not cheap; fairly expensive
    1.       Especially the amber that has things caught in it; doesn’t decay very much
    2.       Resin is __ and __
    a.       Pitchers use it to make the ball thick
    b.      Bowlers use it
    c.       Makes thing __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   i.      Violin bows and viola bows and cello bow
    d.      May be used by some dancers as well
    • turpentine and rosin
    • not quite as slippery
  23. a.       Conifer leaves have a lot of __ 
    adaptations for dry environments