blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
smallest of the blood vessels, part of microcirculation. Where gases are exchanged between arteries and veins
Thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
Red blood cells, transports oxygen and co2
is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates
great lymphatic vessel that empties lymph into one of the subclavian veins
is an oval-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, distributed widely throughout the body. Part of the lymphatic system
The arch of the aorta or the transverse aortic arch
large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.
portion of the blood collection chamber of the heart.
one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs
conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary trunk arises.
In the upper part of the right atrium of the heart is a specialized bundle of neurons known as the sinoatrial node (SA node). the impulse-generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart
involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart
an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two sub- groups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle
Forebrain. Contains the telencephalon, diencephalon and Parts of the limbic system- thalamus and epithalamus.
Part of forebrain. Contains cerebral hemispheres, cerebrum. Cerebrum is large in reptiles and birds. Mammals have cerebral cortex.
Midbrain. Remains undivided. Important for integrating visual signals. Fish=optic lobes, Amniotes=2nd pair of lobes optic and auditory, Mammals= corporaquadrigemina, superior and inferior colliculi.
Hind brain. Contains Metencephalon and myelencephalon.
Part of prosencephalon. Box with walls and floors. Floor=hypothalamus. Pituitary gland is outgrowth of hypothalamus. Thalamus= walls of Diencephalon. Epithalamus is the roof contains pineal gland.
Part of Rhombencephalon. Cerebellum. Largest area of Meten. for movement and equilibrium, maintenance of posture.
Part of Rhombencephalon. Medulla oblongata. Base of the brain-joins spinal cord. Everything going to and from the brain go through medulla. Reflex level for heart beat, respiration.
Basic unit. Nerve cell body. Have Dendrites and Axons and a terminal point.
Space between 2 neurons. NO direct contact
Conductive part of neuron. insulated by myelin, which are a layer of cells that wrap around axon.
Receptive part of the neuron. the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received
Layer of cells that are wrapped around the Axon of a neuron.
Dorsal and Ventral roots
Lead into the spinal cord (spinal nerves). Not the same in all classes of vertebrates.
At least 3 neurons. Sensory, Inter, & motor neurons.
Neurotransmitter. found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is the most common neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter. norepinephrine a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, increasing blood pressure and heart rate
Sympathetic system?? Prepares body for action. Fight or Flight.
continuous rod of fibrous connective tissues, wrapped around fluid filled cells.
nodules of cartilage in the continuous mesenchymal sheath in close apposition to the external surface of the notochord
the solid central part of a vertebra, to which the arches and processes are attached.
basal & radial pterygiophores
plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another.
of or pertaining to the correlation between two sets of measurements, one set of which is limited to one of two values.
rhipidistians, radials are on one side of the axis.
part of pectoral girdle, large, coracoid process
only dermal part left of pectoral girdle
membrane bone which first appears as part of the skeleton in primitive bony fish, where it runs vertically along the scapula.
small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula
the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
the lower and back part of the hip bone
The forward portion of either of the hipbones, at the juncture forming the front arch of the pelvis. Also called pubic bone
the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved and participates in more protein-protein interactions than any known protein
comprise a family of ATP-dependent motor proteins and are best known for their role in muscle contraction
heads on myosin bind to activated sites on actin filament, head swivel, ratchets actin along myosin, head let go, repeated
a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into cells
is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes
the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction
the outer layer formed after the split of the lateral plate mesoderm (along the splanchnic mesoderm).
the inner layer of mesoderm created by splitting of the lateral plate mesoderm
the group of muscles that a single spinal nerve root innervates
the blocks of skeletal muscle tissue found commonly in chordates.
segment in between the myotomes (muscle segments) of a fish
lie dorsal to the horizontal septum of the vertebrae
lie ventral to the horizontal septum of the vertebrae
muscles of jawed fishes are straplike muscles running from the pectoral girdle to the structures of the visceral skeleton, the jaws, and the gill
muscles associated with the pharyngeal arches; provide a large portion of the musculature for the face
an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism
one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo
The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing embryo
a depression between the brain and thepericardium in an embryo, and is the precursor of the mouth and the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
the back ectodermal part of an alimentary canal
cone-shaped passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the esophagus and larynx
an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes
a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food
a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract
forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals
mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach
the food that an animal (such as a cow) brings back up from its stomach into its mouth to be chewed again
Cellulase helps breaks down cellulose into beta-glucose
a thick-walled, muscular pouch in the lower stomach of many birds and reptiles that grinds food
an inactive enzyme secreted by the gastric glands.
an enzyme whose zymogen (pepsinogen) is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides.
the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine
finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall
a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine
a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis
is a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.
a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates. It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body
is the posterior opening that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts
filter-feeding organs found in non-vertebrate chordates
Gills have pouches and water flows through and exits via an external pore
found in chondritchthyes "cartilagenous fish"
lies between 2 demibranchs of a gill arch; Gill rakers protrude from gill cartilage & 'guard' entrance into gill chamber
gill lamellae extend freely in opercular cavity
is to improve the gill function. The net area of the gills is increased through gill lamellae.
Having a connecting tube between the air bladder and a part of the alimentary canal
having an air bladder that is not connected to the alimentary canal
is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy
a connection is retained between the swim bladder and the gut, the pneumatic duct, allowing the fish to fill up the swim bladder
glandular structure that secretes a gas
a bony fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills.
consists of four pairs of bones, called ossicles, derived from the vertebrae immediately following the skull
the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails
The airways of the lungs. When a person takes in a breath of air, the air travels through the nose or mouth
are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
word used in anatomy for hollow cavities, which are empty areas within a body
the voice box, is an organ in the neck
flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx
defined as the space in between the vocal folds
the dome-shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process
a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage
is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage
the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals
a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air
main passageway into the lungs
bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity.
An air-filled space in the body of a bird that forms a connection between the lungs and bone cavities and aids in breathing and temperature regulation.
In the avian lung, the gas exchange occurs in the walls of microscopic tubules,