Study guide 12

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Study guide 12
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  1. Artery
    blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
  2. Vein
    Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
  3. capillary
    smallest of the blood vessels, part of microcirculation. Where gases are exchanged between arteries and veins
  4. Endothelium
    Thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
  5. Erythrocytes
    Red blood cells, transports oxygen and co2
  6. Hemoglobin
    is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates
  7. Lymph ducts
    great lymphatic vessel that empties lymph into one of the subclavian veins
  8. Lymph nodes
    is an oval-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, distributed widely throughout the body. Part of the lymphatic system
  9. Aortic arches
    The arch of the aorta or the transverse aortic arch
  10. Sinus venosus
    large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.
  11. Atrium
    portion of the blood collection chamber of the heart.
  12. Ventricle
    one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs
  13. Conus arteriosus
    conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary trunk arises.
  14. Sinoatrial node
    In the upper part of the right atrium of the heart is a specialized bundle of neurons known as the sinoatrial node (SA node). the impulse-generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart
  15. Cardiac muscle
    involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart
  16. Smooth muscle
    an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two sub- groups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle
  17. Prosencephalon
    Forebrain. Contains the telencephalon, diencephalon and Parts of the limbic system- thalamus and epithalamus.
  18. Telencephalon
    Part of forebrain. Contains cerebral hemispheres, cerebrum. Cerebrum is large in reptiles and birds. Mammals have cerebral cortex.
  19. Mesencephalon
    Midbrain. Remains undivided. Important for integrating visual signals. Fish=optic lobes, Amniotes=2nd pair of lobes optic and auditory, Mammals= corporaquadrigemina, superior and inferior colliculi.
  20. Rhombencephalon
    Hind brain. Contains Metencephalon and myelencephalon.
  21. Diencephalon
    Part of prosencephalon. Box with walls and floors. Floor=hypothalamus. Pituitary gland is outgrowth of hypothalamus. Thalamus= walls of Diencephalon. Epithalamus is the roof contains pineal gland.
  22. Metencephalon
    Part of Rhombencephalon. Cerebellum. Largest area of Meten. for movement and equilibrium, maintenance of posture.
  23. Myelencephalon
    Part of Rhombencephalon. Medulla oblongata. Base of the brain-joins spinal cord. Everything going to and from the brain go through medulla. Reflex level for heart beat, respiration.
  24. Neuron
    Basic unit. Nerve cell body. Have Dendrites and Axons and a terminal point.
  25. Synapse
    Space between 2 neurons. NO direct contact
  26. Axon
    Conductive part of neuron. insulated by myelin, which are a layer of cells that wrap around axon.
  27. Dendrite
    Receptive part of the neuron.  the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received
  28. Myelin
    Layer of cells that are wrapped around the Axon of a neuron.
  29. Dorsal and Ventral roots
    Lead into the spinal cord (spinal nerves). Not the same in all classes of vertebrates.
  30. Reflex arc
    At least 3 neurons. Sensory, Inter, & motor neurons.
  31. acetyl choline
    Neurotransmitter. found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is the most common neurotransmitter.
  32. Noradrenaline
    Neurotransmitter. norepinephrine a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, increasing blood pressure and heart rate
  33. Sympathetic chain
    Sympathetic system?? Prepares body for action. Fight or Flight.
  34. Notochord
    continuous rod of fibrous connective tissues, wrapped around fluid filled cells.
  35. arcualia
    nodules of cartilage in the continuous mesenchymal sheath in close apposition to the external surface of the notochord
  36. centrum
    the solid central part of a vertebra, to which the arches and processes are attached.
  37. basal & radial pterygiophores
    plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another.
  38. biserial
    of or pertaining to the correlation between two sets of measurements, one set of which is limited to one of two values.
  39. Uniserial
    rhipidistians, radials are on one side of the axis.
  40. lepidotrichia
    osteichthyes, bone
  41. ceratotrichia
    Chondricthyes, keratin
  42. scapula
    part of pectoral girdle, large, coracoid process
  43. Clavicle
    only dermal part left of pectoral girdle
  44. cleithrum
    membrane bone which first appears as part of the skeleton in primitive bony fish, where it runs vertically along the scapula.
  45. coracoid
    small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula
  46. ilium
    the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
  47. ischium
    the lower and back part of the hip bone
  48. pubis
    The forward portion of either of the hipbones, at the juncture forming the front arch of the pelvis. Also called pubic bone
  49. actin
    the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved and participates in more protein-protein interactions than any known protein
  50. myosin
    comprise a family of ATP-dependent motor proteins and are best known for their role in muscle contraction
  51. sliding filament
    heads on myosin bind to activated sites on actin filament, head swivel, ratchets actin along myosin, head let go, repeated
  52. syncytium
    a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into cells
  53. myoblast
    creates muscle
  54. myocyte
    is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
  55. isotonic
    tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes
  56. isometric
    the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction
  57. Somatic mesoderm
    the outer layer formed after the split of the lateral plate mesoderm (along the splanchnic mesoderm).
  58. splanchnic mesoderm
    the inner layer of mesoderm created by splitting of the lateral plate mesoderm
  59. myotome
    the group of muscles that a single spinal nerve root innervates
  60. myomere
    the blocks of skeletal muscle tissue found commonly in chordates.
  61. myosepta
    segment in between the myotomes (muscle segments) of a fish
  62. epaxial
    lie dorsal to the horizontal septum of the vertebrae
  63. hypaxial
    lie ventral to the horizontal septum of the vertebrae
  64. hypobranchial
    muscles of jawed fishes are straplike muscles running from the pectoral girdle to the structures of the visceral skeleton, the jaws, and the gill
  65. branchiometric
    muscles associated with the pharyngeal arches; provide a large portion of the musculature for the face
  66. Blastopore
    an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism
  67. endoderm
    one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo
  68. archenteron
    The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing embryo
  69. stomodeum
    a depression between the brain and thepericardium in an embryo, and is the precursor of the mouth and the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  70. proctodeum
    the back ectodermal part of an alimentary canal
  71. pharynx
    cone-shaped passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the esophagus and larynx
  72. esophagus
    an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes
  73. crop
    a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food
  74. stomach
    a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract
  75. rumen
    forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals
  76. ruminents
    mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach
  77. cud
    the food that an animal (such as a cow) brings back up from its stomach into its mouth to be chewed again
  78. cellulase
    Cellulase helps breaks down cellulose into beta-glucose
  79. gizzard
    a thick-walled, muscular pouch in the lower stomach of many birds and reptiles that grinds food
  80. pepsinogen
    an inactive enzyme secreted by the gastric glands.
  81. pepsin
    an enzyme whose zymogen (pepsinogen) is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides.
  82. small intestine
    the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine
  83. villus
    finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall
  84. bile
    a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine
  85. liver
    a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis
  86. gall bladder
    is a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.
  87. pancreas
    a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
  88. colon
    the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates. It extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body
  89. cloaca
    is the posterior opening that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts
  90. pharyngeal slits
    filter-feeding organs found in non-vertebrate chordates
  91. pouched gills
    Gills have pouches and water flows through and exits via an external pore
  92. septal gills
    found in chondritchthyes "cartilagenous fish"
  93. interbranchial septum
    lies between 2 demibranchs of a gill arch; Gill rakers protrude from gill cartilage & 'guard' entrance into gill chamber
  94. aseptal gills
    gill lamellae extend freely in opercular cavity
  95. gill lamella
    is to improve the gill function. The net area of the gills is increased through gill lamellae.
  96. physostomous
    Having a connecting tube between the air bladder and a part of the alimentary canal
  97. physoclistous
    having an air bladder that is not connected to the alimentary canal
  98. swim bladder
    is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy
  99. pneumatic duct
    a connection is retained between the swim bladder and the gut, the pneumatic duct, allowing the fish to fill up the swim bladder
  100. gas/red gland
    glandular structure that secretes a gas
  101. operculum
    a bony fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills.
  102. Weberian ossicles
    consists of four pairs of bones, called ossicles, derived from the vertebrae immediately following the skull
  103. lung
    the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails
  104. bronchus
    The airways of the lungs. When a person takes in a breath of air, the air travels through the nose or mouth
  105. bronchioles
    are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
  106. alveoli
    word used in anatomy for hollow cavities, which are empty areas within a body
  107. larynx
    the voice box, is an organ in the neck
  108. epiglottis
    flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx
  109. glottis
    defined as the space in between the vocal folds
  110. diaphragm
    the dome-shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process
  111. turbinates
    a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage
  112. conchae
    is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage
  113. palate
    the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals
  114. trachea
    a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air
  115. bronchii
    main passageway into the lungs
  116. bronchioles
    bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
  117. alveoli
    an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity.
  118. air sacs
    An air-filled space in the body of a bird that forms a connection between the lungs and bone cavities and aids in breathing and temperature regulation.
  119. air capillaries
    In the avian lung, the gas exchange occurs in the walls of microscopic tubules,

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