Interstitial fluid forced into lymphatic vessels that lymphocytes are surrounded by.
anything that illicits an immune response
T cell is activated by
an antigen presenting cell.
B cells are activated by
direct contact with antigen.
List & briefly describe the 3 major organs of the immune system.
Lymph nodes:Filter lymph, house macrophages that destroy foreign particles and cellular debris in lymph
Thymus:Houses lymphocytes; differentiates thymocites into T cells
Spleen:Blood reservoir that houses macrophages that remove foreign particles, damaged RBC and cellular debris from blood; contains lymphocytes
Summarize the 3 main functions of the lymphatic system.
1. Assists in circulating body fluids an so closely related to cardiovascular system.
2. Transports fluids away from tissues and retuns it to bloodstream.
3. Defends body against infection by disease-causing agents(pathogens).
Summarize a typical lymphatic pathway.
Lymphatic pathways,lymph, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels(have semilunar valves), lymph nodes, lymphatic trunks, collecting ducts(thoracic-larger- or right lymphatic duct-right jugular vein-)
Describe what lymph is made of & where it comes from.
Capillary BP filters water and sm molecules from plasma. Plasma proteins are to large to pass thro. The resulting fluid has the same composition as plasma(nutrients, gases, hormones), but no plasma proteins.
Describe the role of plasma proteins in regard to lymph formation.
List the 2 forces and 1 structure moving lymph to the cardiovascular system.
Describe the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation(the inflammatory response) & the cause if each sign.
Define 'immune clearance' phagocytotic cells.
Antigens w attached antibodies grow large & fall from solution, travel to spleen, and are cleared from system.
What mechanisms comprise the 'first line of defense'?
Skin, and mucous membranes, tears, saliva, urine
What mechanisms comprise the second line of defense?
Chemical barriers, natural killer cells, inflammation, phagocytosis, fever
Secondary immune response
Memory B&T cells respond quickly.
Primary immune response
When B or T cells become activated after the first encounter with antigens, plasma cells release antibodies.
The 4 ways immunity can be classified and a description of each:
1.Naturally acquired active immunity-Exposure to live pathogens stimulates an immune response with symptoms of the disease.
2.Artificially acquired active immunity- Exposure to weakened or dead pathogens stimulates an immune response without symptoms.
3.Artificially acquired active immunity- Injection of gamma globulin containing antibodies or antitoxin results in short-term immunity without stimulating an immune response.
4.Naturally acquired passive immunity- Antibodies passed to fetus with active immunity or to newborn thro breast milk from woman with active immunity results in short-term immunity for newborn without stimulating an immune response.
List the 5 types of major immunoglobulin, where they occur and the major function of each.
1. Immunoglobulin IgG-plasma and tissue fluid; defends against bacteria, viruses, toxins & activates compliment.
2. Immunoglobulin IgA-exocrine gland secretion; defends against bacteria and viruses.