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Primary cells of lymphatic system
Interstitial fluid forced into lymphatic vessels that lymphocytes are surrounded by.
anything that illicits an immune response
T cell is activated by
an antigen presenting cell.
B cells are activated by
direct contact with antigen.
List & briefly describe the 3 major organs of the immune system.
- Lymph nodes:Filter lymph, house macrophages that destroy foreign particles and cellular debris in lymph
- Thymus:Houses lymphocytes; differentiates thymocites into T cells
- Spleen:Blood reservoir that houses macrophages that remove foreign particles, damaged RBC and cellular debris from blood; contains lymphocytes
Summarize the 3 main functions of the lymphatic system.
- 1. Assists in circulating body fluids an so closely related to cardiovascular system.
- 2. Transports fluids away from tissues and retuns it to bloodstream.
- 3. Defends body against infection by disease-causing agents(pathogens).
Summarize a typical lymphatic pathway.
Lymphatic pathways,lymph, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels(have semilunar valves), lymph nodes, lymphatic trunks, collecting ducts(thoracic-larger- or right lymphatic duct-right jugular vein-)
Describe what lymph is made of & where it comes from.
Capillary BP filters water and sm molecules from plasma. Plasma proteins are to large to pass thro. The resulting fluid has the same composition as plasma(nutrients, gases, hormones), but no plasma proteins.
Describe the role of plasma proteins in regard to lymph formation.
List the 2 forces and 1 structure moving lymph to the cardiovascular system.
Skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump & one-way valves
What are the function of lymph nodes?
List the 7 major lymph node aggregations & briefly describe from which part of the body they receive lymph.
- 1.cervical region-from skin of scalp and face, nasal cavity, pharynx
- 2.axillary region-from vessels that drain the upper limbs, thorax wall, mammary glands, upper abdomen wall
- 3.inguinal region-from lower limbs, external genitalia, lower abdomen wall
- 4.pelvic cavity-from lymphatic vessels of pelvic viscera
- 5.abdominal cavity-from abdominal viscera
- 6.thoracic cavity-from thoracic viscera&internal thorax wall
- 7.supratrochlear region- hands
List the non-adaptive mechanisms of defense against infection.
List the 4 types of cytokines and a brief description of each:
- 1.Colony stimulating factors-stimulate bone marrow to produce lymphocytes
- 2.Interferon-block viral replication, stimulate phagocytotic macrophages,stimulate B cells to produce antibodies, attack cancer cells
- 3.Interleukins-control lymphocyte differentiation and growth
- 4.Tumor necrosis factor-stops tumor growth, releases growth factors, causes fever to accompany bacterial infections, stimulates lymphocyte differentiation
Describe how innate (nonspecific) defense differs from adaptive defense.
general antibodies versus specific antigens activating specific antibodies
List the 8 main types of nonspecific(innate) immune response and describe.
- 1.Species resistance: some species are resistant to diseases others are not
- 2.Mechanical barriers: skin, and mucous membranes
- 3.Chemical barriers: interferons, defensins, collectins, compliment
- 4.Natural killer cells: type of lymphocyte that secretes perforins that lyse virus infected cells or cancer cells.
- 5.Inflammation: tissue response helps prevent spread to nearby tissue
- 6.Phagocytosis: Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, engulf&destroy foreign cells and particles
- 7.Fever: inhibits microbial growth&increase phagocytotic activity
Describe the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation(the inflammatory response) & the cause if each sign.
- 1.Colar- temperature
- 2.Rubor- redness
- 3.Tumor- swelling
- 4.Dolor- pain
Define 'immune clearance' phagocytotic cells.
Antigens w attached antibodies grow large & fall from solution, travel to spleen, and are cleared from system.
What mechanisms comprise the 'first line of defense'?
Skin, and mucous membranes, tears, saliva, urine
What mechanisms comprise the second line of defense?
Chemical barriers, natural killer cells, inflammation, phagocytosis, fever
Secondary immune response
Memory B&T cells respond quickly.
Primary immune response
When B or T cells become activated after the first encounter with antigens, plasma cells release antibodies.
The 4 ways immunity can be classified and a description of each:
- 1.Naturally acquired active immunity-Exposure to live pathogens stimulates an immune response with symptoms of the disease.
- 2.Artificially acquired active immunity- Exposure to weakened or dead pathogens stimulates an immune response without symptoms.
- 3.Artificially acquired active immunity- Injection of gamma globulin containing antibodies or antitoxin results in short-term immunity without stimulating an immune response.
- 4.Naturally acquired passive immunity- Antibodies passed to fetus with active immunity or to newborn thro breast milk from woman with active immunity results in short-term immunity for newborn without stimulating an immune response.
List the 5 types of major immunoglobulin, where they occur and the major function of each.
- 1. Immunoglobulin IgG-plasma and tissue fluid; defends against bacteria, viruses, toxins & activates compliment.
- 2. Immunoglobulin IgA-exocrine gland secretion; defends against bacteria and viruses.
- 3. Immunoglobulin IgM-plasma; reaction after mismatched blood transfusion & activates compliment.
- 4. Immunoglobulin IgD-surface of B lymphocytes; B cell activation.
- 5. Immunoglobulin IgE-exocrine gland secretion; promotes inflammation & allergic reaction; usually attached to 'mast' cells.
Describe the actions of antibodies.
- Agglutination-in direct attack antigens clump. In activation of compliment, causes clumping of antigen bearing cells-Eg:
- Precipitation-antigens become insoluble-Eg:
- Neutralization-antigens lose toxic property in direct attack. In activation of compliment, molecular structure of viruses is altered making them harmless-Eg:
- Opsinisation-alters antigen cell membrane so cells are more susceptible to phagocytosis-Eg:
- Chemotaxis-Atrracts macrophages & neutrophils into region-Eg:
- Lysis-allows rapid movement of water&ions into foreign cells causing osmotic rupture-Eg:
- Inflammation-helps prevent the spread of antigens-Eg:
List the 4 types of allergic reactions. Describe what happens & give an example of each.
- 1.Anyphylatic shock:
- 2.Antibody-dependant cytotoxic reactions:
- 3.Immune complex reactions:
- 4.Delayed reaction allergy:
List the 4 major types of grafts(transplant tissue) and describe each.
- 1.Autografts:donor is self-Eg: skingraft
- 2.Allografts:donor is human-Eg: kidney from relative or close match
- 3.Isografts: identical twin donor-Eg: bone marrow
- 4.Xenografts:donor is from animal-Eg: pig heart valve
Immune system fails to distinguish self from nonself and produces antibodies called autoantibodies.