catholic clergy- 1% of pop.- own 10% of land, pay few taxes
rich nobles- 2% of pop.- own 20% of land
97% of citizens, commoners. Few privileges, pay heavy taxes
married to Marie Antionette- King of France- nearly doubled France's debt. taxed estates to make up for the money loss.
Married to Louis XVI- Queen of France. interfered with gov. Gave Louis XVI poor advice. originally member of the royal family from Austria so was disliked. AKA: "Madame Deficit"
Social and Political system in France during 1770's.
3rd Estate delegates who pass laws and reforms in the name of French people. Suggested by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes. Ended absolute power, started representatives gov. New constitution for France.
Tennis Court Oath
3rd Estate delegates found themselves locked out of their meeting room. They broke down a door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution.
attacks by peasants; taking place across France.
had power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of wars. King still held executive power to enforce laws. New legislative body created by National Assembly in new constitution. Replaced National Assembly.
nobles and others who had fled France, hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime.
wore reg. trousers. Parsian workers and small shopkeepers wanted the Revolution to bring even greater changes to France.
radicals- liberal opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in how the gov was run.
wanted some gov. changes but not as many as the radicals
conservative- idea and of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes in gov.
Jacobin leader, rules France for a year. caused the Great Fear
beheadings, "more humane"
abolished monarchy and declared France a republic, governing body.
a lawyer known for his devotion to the rights of Paris's poor people. Beheaded by Maximilien. "Show my head, its well worth seeing."
coup d' etat
seizure of power, "blow to the state" Napoleon did this.
vote of the people
gov. run public schools to train officials
born in Corsica, attends military school, joins army, gave himself a title. wanted to be like Julius Caesar.
concordat with the church
agreement with the pope restoring Catholicism in France.
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon's only major war lose. took place in SW coast of Spain.
Napoleon's Three Mistakes
1.) Blockade of Great Britain
2.) Invasion of Portugal
3.) Invasion of Russia
bands of Spanish peasant struck. French armies in Peninsular War
1.) Escapes Elba...
2.) Loses Battle of Waterloo
3.) Shipped to St. Helena (dies 5 1/2 years later possibly from cancer)
Russians burned grain fields and slaughtering livestock so to leave nothing behind for the enemy.
economic plan to strengthen Europe, weaken Britain, blockade of Great Britain
Louis XVII's son, became emperor after Napoleon, who was not welcomed
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon attacked British for a whole day. Then Prussia came from other side. 2 days later Napoleon's army gave up.
Napoleon gets sent here.
Czar Alexander I
Signed the Holy Alliance.
Congress of Vienna
series of meetings that reshape Europe.
agreement signed by Euperor Francis I of Austria and King Fredrick William III of Prussia that pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of Revolution.