Soc Final

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  1. absolute poverty
    Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining a reasonably healthy existence
  2. authority
    Possession of some status or quality that compels others to obey one’s directives or commands
  3. caste system:
    Stratification system based on heredity, with little movement allowed across strata
  4. colonization:
    Process of expanding economic markets by invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people
  5. competitive individualism:
    Cultural belief that those who succeed in society are those who work hardest and have the best abilities and that those who suffer don’t work hard enough or lack the necessary traits or abilities
  6. culture-of-poverty thesis:
    Belief that poor people, resigned to their position in society, develop a unique value structure to deal with their lack of success
  7. estate system (feudal system)
    Stratification system in which high-status groups own land and have power based on noble birth
  8. false consciousness:
    Situation in which people in the lower classes come to accept a belief system that harms them; the primary means by which powerful classes in society prevent protest and revolution
  9. means of production
    Land, commercial enterprises, factories, and wealth that form the economic basis of class societies
  10. Middle Clas
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have an intermediate level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as managers, supervisors, executives, small business owners, and professionals
  11. near-poor:
    Individuals or families whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line (working poor)
  12. poor:
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who work for minimum wage or are chronically unemployed
  13. poverty line
    Amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs, according to the federal government
  14. poverty rate:
    Percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty
  15. power
    Ability to affect decisions in ways that benefit a person or protect his or her interests
  16. prestige:
    Respect and honor given to some people in society
  17. prestige:
    individual’ economic position compared with the living standards of the majority in the society
  18. slavery:
    Economic form of inequality in which some people are legally the property of others
  19. social class:
    Group of people who share a similar economic position in a society, based on their wealth and income
  20. social mobility
    Movement of people or groups from one class to another
  21. socioeconomic status
    Prestige, honor, respect, and lifestyle associated with different positions or groups in society
  22. stratification
    Ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
  23. upper class
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have nigh income and prestige and who own vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, such as owners of large corporations, top financiers, rich celebrities and politicians, and members of prestigious families
  24. working class:
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have a low level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as industrial and factory workers, office workers, clerks, and farm and manual laborers
  25. working poor
    Employed people who consistently earn wages but do not make enough to survive (near-poor)
  26. affirmative action:
    Program designed to see out members of minority groups for positions from which they had previously been excluded, thereby seeking to overcome institutional racism
  27. colorism:
    Skin color prejudice within an ethnoracial group, most notably between light-skinned and dark-skinned Blacks
  28. discrimination:
    Unfair treatment of people based on some social characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, or sex
  29. ethnicity:
    Sense of community derived from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people with common ancestry
  30. institutional racism:
    Laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial and ethnic inequalities in a society, whether or not the individuals maintaing these laws, customs, and practices have racist intentions
  31. panethnic labels:
    General terms applied to diverse subgroups that are assumed to have something in common
  32. personal racism:
    Individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors
  33. prejudice:
    Rigidly held, unfavorable attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about members of a different group based on a social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or gender
  34. quiet racism:
    Form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, and fear, which motivate avoidance rather than blatant discrimination
  35. race:
    Category of people labeled and treated as similar because of allegedly common biological traits, such as skin color, texture of hair, and shape of eyes
  36. racial transparency:
    Tendency for the race of a society’s majority to be so obvious, normative, and unremarkable that it becomes, for all intents and purposes, invisible
  37. racism
    Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior
  38. stereotype:
    Overgeneralized belief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members of some identifiable group
  39. institutional sexism:
    Subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law, politics, and other social institutions
  40. matriarchy
    Female-dominated society that gives higher prestige and value to women than to men
  41. objectification:
    Practice of treating people as objects
  42. patriarchy:
    Male-dominated society in which cultural beliefs and values give higher prestige and value to men than women
  43. pay equity:
    Principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally
  44. sexism
    System of beliefs that asserts the inferiority of one sex and justifies gender-based inequality
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Soc Final
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