arrl T3 questions.txt

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arrl T3 questions.txt
2014-04-25 09:39:22
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  1. What should you do if another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are weak or distorted?
    A. Change the batteries in your radio to a different type
    B. Turn on the CTCSS tone
    C. Ask the other operator to adjust his squelch control
    D. Try moving a few feet, as random reflections may be causing multi-path distortion
  2. Why are UHF signals often more effective from inside buildings than VHF signals?
    A. VHF signals lose power faster over distance
    B. The shorter wavelength allows them to more easily penetrate the structure of buildings
    C. This is incorrect; VHF works better than UHF inside buildings
    D. UHF antennas are more efficient than VHF antennas
  3. What antenna polarization is normally used for long-distance weak-signal CW and SSB contacts using the VHF and UHF bands?
    A. Right-hand circular
    B. Left-hand circular
    C. Horizontal
    D. Vertical
  4. What can happen if the antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the same polarization?
    A. The modulation sidebands might become inverted
    B. Signals could be significantly weaker
    C. Signals have an echo effect on voices
    D. Nothing significant will happen
  5. When using a directional antenna, how might your station be able to access a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path?
    A. Change from vertical to horizontal polarization
    B. Try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater
    C. Try the long path
    D. Increase the antenna SWR
  6. What term is commonly used to describe the rapid fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile stations that are moving while transmitting?
    A. Flip-flopping
    B. Picket fencing
    C. Frequency shifting
    D. Pulsing
  7. What type of wave carries radio signals between transmitting and receiving stations?
    A. Electromagnetic
    B. Electrostatic
    C. Surface acoustic
    D. Magnetostrictive
  8. What is the cause of irregular fading of signals from distant stations during times of generally good reception?
    A. Absorption of signals by the "D" layer of the ionosphere
    B. Absorption of signals by the "E" layer of the ionosphere
    C. Random combining of signals arriving via different path lengths
    D. Intermodulation distortion in the local receiver
  9. Which of the following is a common effect of "skip" reflections between the Earth and the ionosphere?
    A. The sidebands become reversed at each reflection
    B. The polarization of the original signal is randomized
    C. The apparent frequency of the received signal is shifted by a random amount
    D. Signals at frequencies above 30 MHz become stronger with each reflection
  10. What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple paths?
    A. Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed
    B. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observed
    C. No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FM
    D. Error rates are likely to increase
  11. Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world?
    A. The stratosphere
    B. The troposphere
    C. The ionosphere
    D. The magnetosphere
  12. What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle?
    A. Wave speed
    B. Waveform
    C. Wavelength
    D. Wave spread
  13. What term describes the number of times per second that an alternating current reverses direction?
    A. Pulse rate
    B. Speed
    C. Wavelength
    D. Frequency
  14. What are the two components of a radio wave?
    A. AC and DC
    B. Voltage and current
    C. Electric and magnetic fields
    D. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
  15. How fast does a radio wave travel through free space?
    A. At the speed of light
    B. At the speed of sound
    C. Its speed is inversely proportional to its wavelength
    D. Its speed increases as the frequency increases
  16. How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency?
    A. The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases
    B. The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases
    C. There is no relationship between wavelength and frequency
    D. The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal
  17. What is the formula for converting frequency to wavelength in meters?
    A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300
    B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300
    C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300
    D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz
  18. What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands?
    A. The approximate wavelength
    B. The magnetic intensity of waves
    C. The time it takes for waves to travel one mile
    D. The voltage standing wave ratio of waves
  19. What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum?
    A. 30 to 300 kHz
    B. 30 to 300 MHz
    C. 300 to 3000 kHz
    D. 300 to 3000 MHz
  20. What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum?
    A. 30 to 300 kHz
    B. 30 to 300 MHz
    C. 300 to 3000 kHz
    D. 300 to 3000 MHz
  21. What frequency range is referred to as HF?
    A. 300 to 3000 MHz
    B. 30 to 300 MHz
    C. 3 to 30 MHz
    D. 300 to 3000 kHz
  22. What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through free space?
    A. 3000 kilometers per second
    B. 300,000,000 meters per second
    C. 300,000 miles per hour
    D. 186,000 miles per hour
  23. Why are "direct" (not via a repeater) UHF signals rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage area?
    A. They are too weak to go very far
    B. FCC regulations prohibit them from going more than 50 miles
    C. UHF signals are usually not reflected by the ionosphere C
    D. They collide with trees and shrubbery and fade out
  24. Which of the following might be happening when VHF signals are being received from long distances?
    A. Signals are being reflected from outer space
    B. Signals are arriving by sub-surface ducting
    C. Signals are being reflected by lightning storms in your area
    D. Signals are being refracted from a sporadic E layer
  25. What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral reflection?
    A. Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles are common
    B. The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength and often sound distorted
    C. These types of signals occur only during winter nighttime hours
    D. These types of signals are generally strongest when your antenna is aimed to the south (for stations in the Northern Hemisphere)
  26. Which of the following propagation types is most commonly associated with occasional strong over-the-horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands?
    A. Backscatter
    B. Sporadic E
    C. D layer absorption
    D. Gray-line propagation
  27. What is meant by the term "knife-edge" propagation?
    A. Signals are reflected back toward the originating station at acute angles
    B. Signals are sliced into several discrete beams and arrive via different paths
    C. Signals are partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges
    D. Signals propagated close to the band edge exhibiting a sharp cutoff
  28. What mode is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis?
    A. Tropospheric scatter
    B. D layer refraction
    C. F2 layer refraction
    D. Faraday rotation
  29. What band is best suited to communicating via meteor scatter?
    A. 10 meters
    B. 6 meters
    C. 2 meters
    D. 70 cm
  30. What causes "tropospheric ducting"?
    A. Discharges of lightning during electrical storms
    B. Sunspots and solar flares
    C. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes
    D. Temperature inversions in the atmosphere
  31. What is generally the best time for long-distance 10 meter band propagation?
    A. During daylight hours
    B. During nighttime hours
    C. When there are coronal mass ejections
    D. Whenever the solar flux is low
  32. What is the radio horizon?
    A. The distance at which radio signals between two points are effectively blocked by the curvature of the Earth
    B. The distance from the ground to a horizontally mounted antenna
    C. The farthest point you can see when standing at the base of your antenna tower
    D. The shortest distance between two points on the Earth's surface
  33. Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat farther than the visual line of sight distance between two stations?
    A. Radio signals move somewhat faster than the speed of light
    B. Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles
    C. The Earth seems less curved to radio waves than to light
    D. Radio waves are blocked by dust particles

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