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  1. Epistemology
    the study of knowledge
  2. Metaphysics
    the study of reality
  3. Ethics
    The study of what is reasonably deemed right and wrong
  4. Rule-based ethics
    Actions are deemed right or wrong depending on whether they follow certain rules.
  5. Virtue ethics
    Individuals become good or bad based on the type of actions that they take.
  6. Argument
    a set of claims put forward to show that a further set of claims are rationally acceptable.
  7. Evidence/Premises
    the set of claims put forward to prove an argument.
  8. Conclusion
    a claim that is being shown as rationally acceptable in an argument.
  9. Assumption
    evidence that is not explicit.
  10. Valid
    The form of the argument means that true premises will lead to a true conclusion.
  11. Sound
    a valid argument with true premises.
  12. Fallacy
    a form of argument where the premises do not ensure the truth of the conclusion.
  13. Socratic Method
    Claim ignorance, find an expert, ask questions, and look for universal truths.
  14. The Euthyphro Dilemma
    “Is it good because the gods love it, or do the gods love it because it is good?”
  15. Happiness (for Aristotle)
    the only end in itself.
  16. Vulgar Happiness (for Aristotle)
    Fulfillment of bodily desires.
  17. Social Happiness (for Aristotle)
    Fulfillment through interactions with others.
  18. Contemplative Happiness (for Aristotle)
    Fulfillment through thought and reason.
  19. Intellectual Virtue
    virtue that can be taught (mathematics, science, reading)
  20. Moral Virtue
    a good habit gained through practice.
  21. The Golden Mean
    the perfect balance in a given situation dictated by reason.
  22. Consequentialism
    Consequences are morally relevant.
  23. Ethical Egoism
    Everyone should act in their own self interest.
  24. Psychological Egoism
    Everyone acts in their own self interest.
  25. Utilitarianism
    Maximize individual happiness.
  26. Act Utilitarianism
    Maximize individual happiness by evaluating every case in context.
  27. Rule Utilitarianism
    Maximize individual happiness by following rules.
  28. Actual Rule Utilitarianism
    Maximize individual happiness by following existing rules that aim to create happiness.
  29. Ideal Rule Utilitarianism
    Maximize individual happiness by creating perfect rules.
  30. Tyranny of the majority
    When the majority exercises influence over individuals through disapproval or enforcement of limitations.
  31. The Harm Principle
    Everyone should be allowed to pursue their own happiness however they see fit as long as they do not harm others.
  32. Rationalism
    Knowledge comes from reason.
  33. Empiricism
    Knowledge comes from experience.
  34. Good Will (for Kant)
    The only thing good in itself
  35. The Categorical Imperative
    Act in such a way that the maxim of your action could be a universal law.
  36. The Naturalistic Fallacy
    Defining good in terms of other natural objects.
  37. Casuistry
    the application of general ethical principles to particular cases of conscience or conduct.
  38. Simple Phrase
    a unit of language that cannot be broken down that is either true or false.
  39. Complex Phrase
    a combination of simple phrases that, when combined, are either true or false.
  40. Subject
    The thing that acts, creates, plans, or produces.
  41. Object
    The thing which is acted upon and manipulated by outside forces.
  42. Liberal Feminism
    The equality of women can be obtained by giving women equal legal rights and protections.
  43. Standard Feminism
    The equality of women can be obtained by recognizing women’s epistemological advantage.
  44. Radical Feminism
    The equality of women can only be obtained by tearing down old patriarchal institutions and replacing them with new ones.
Card Set:
2014-04-25 18:01:20

Ethics def
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