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2014-04-25 22:20:12
mgs 3400

Chap 8 vocab.
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  1. Learning
    reflects relatively permanent change in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience.
  2. Decision making
    The degree to which team members posses adequate information about their on task responsibilities.
  3. Expertise
    refers to the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people.
  4. Explicit knowledge
    the kind of information you're likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn.
  5. Tacit knowledge
    what employees can typically learn only through experience.
  6. Contingencies of reinforcement
    four specific consequences used by organizations to modify employee behavior.
  7. Positive reinforcement
    occurs when a positive outcome follows a desired behavior.
  8. Negative reinforcement
    occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior
  9. Punishment
    occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior.
  10. Extinction
    Occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
  11. Schedules of reinforcement
    The timing of when contingencies are applied or removed.
  12. Continuous reinforcement
    is the simplest schedule and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior.
  13. Fixed interval schedule
    probably the single most common form of reinforcement schedule.
  14. Variable interval schedules
    designed to reinforce behavior at more random points in time.
  15. Fixed ratio schedule
    reinforce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited.
  16. Variable ratio schedules
    reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors.
  17. Social learning theory
    argues that people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others.
  18. Behavioral modeling
    When employees observe the actions of others learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior.
  19. Learning orientation
    where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence.
  20. Performance-prove orientation
    focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them.
  21. Performance-avoid orientation
    those who focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them.
  22. Programmed decisions
    decisions that become somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken.
  23. Intuition
    described as emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, non-conscious, and holistic associations.
  24. Crisis situation
    a change, whether sudden or evolving, that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately.
  25. nonprogrammed decision
    decisions made by employees when a problem is new complex, or not recognized.
  26. Rational decision-making model
    offers a step-by-step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives.
  27. Bounded rationality
    the notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision
  28. Satisficing
    results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered.
  29. Selective perception
    the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations.
  30. Projection bias
    People project their own thoughts, attitudes, and motives onto other people.
  31. Social identity theory
    Holds that people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships.
  32. Stereotype
    occurs when assumptions are made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group.
  33. Heuristics
    Simple, efficient rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily.
  34. Availability bias
    the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall.
  35. Fundamental attribution error
    argues that people have a tendency to judge others' behaviors as due to internal factors.
  36. Self-serving ias
    occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors.
  37. Consensus
    Used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether other individuals behave the same way under similar circumstances.
  38. Distinctiveness
    Used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether the person being judged acts in a similar fashion under different circumstances.
  39. Consistency
    used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether this individual has behaved this way before under similar circumstances.
  40. Exclamation of commitment
    refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action
  41. Training
    represents a systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior.
  42. knowledge transfer
    from their older, experienced workers to their younger employees
  43. Behavior modeling training
    to ensure that employees have the ability to observe and learn from those in the company with significant amounts of tacit knowledge.
  44. Communities of practice
    are groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time.
  45. Transfer of training
    occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace on the learner returns to the job.
  46. climate transfer
    an environment that an support the use of new skills.