Anthro final

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  1. The proposition that increased aridity in the Near East at the end of the Ice Age
    led to the development of domestication around permanent water sources is known
    as ...
    Childe's Oasis Theory
  2. The evidence of writing during the Shang dynasty in China was typically associated with...
    divination (foretelling the future). They would apply heat to the thin bones to make them crack, and the answer to the question could be "read" from the patterns formed by the cracks
  3. What accounts for the relative unimportance of farming in much of the New World prior to the arrival of the Europeans?
    Not many animals could be domesticated. not much of the land was really great for farming on because of all the mountains. Also, there were not as many people to provide for
  4. the style of writing of ancient Mesopotamia, which employed a wedge shaped stylus pressed into damp clay, is known as _____
  5. Small groups that are highly mobile and move to seasonally available resources are known as ______
  6. By the year 1800, the Industrial Revolution was well under way and there were about ___ persons per square mile; two centuries later there were ___ persons per square mile
    18, 105
  7. The Folsom and Plano cultures generally hunted ______
  8. Mousterian culture involves what kinds of practices/behaviors?
    Technology like the composite tool, the discord technique. Stone tools
  9. Which sites in the Near East possess early evidence of modern H. sapiens occupation?
    Skhul Cave (Mt. Carmel), Quafzah Cave (Israel)
  10. Which early H. sapiens cranium from Africa suggests the possibility of cannibalism?
    Moula Guerg
  11. What best describes the nature of Sumerian political organization?
  12. Ian Hodder's approach to the origins of agriculture in Europe proposes that it entailed...
    domestication was the product of both the effects of environmental changes and the exercise of human agency to turn "nature into culture"
  13. Explanations for the origins of domestication that argue for the importance of status competition or ideology are known as:
    cultural perspective
  14. Which Croatian site has yielded remains that exhibit clear Neanderthal traits?
    Krapina, Croatia which is located in Central Europe
  15. What is the latest date (most recent from our perspective) for H. erectus in Java?
  16. What best describes the nature of Maya political organization?
    Chiefdoms. Dominated by elite social class. Maya kings held power over independent city states using religious rituals to promote political cohesion among populations
  17. What conditions define the Holocene?
    The present. glaciers melt, changing the landscapes/coastline. Lakes and other water sources evaporate. A new mosaic of habitats emerge. Warming trend reaches max 6-8kya. Major biotic zones extend northward
  18. What are the earliest reliable dates for Homo erectus in East Africa?
  19. The Ubaid farmers are associated with settling which area?
    Southern plains of Mesopotamia. Great flood prone streams bound only by immense mudflats and marshes
  20. How does Homo erectus' average brain size compare to earlier hominin groups?
    1250cc, closer to modern humans
  21. The change in relationship between humans, animals, and plants whereby they share a mutually beneficial association is known as _______
  22. The earliest plant crops in China were ______
  23. The Paleo-Indian period is defined by what cultural feature(s)?
    fluted point tools/technology
  24. Describe the thesis of the complete replacement theory
    anatomically modern population arose in Africa within the last 200,000 years and then migrated from Africa, completely replacing populations in Europe and Asia
  25. What does Binford's "packing model" seek to explain? What are its distinguishing features?
    Early horticulturalists came from marginal regions, using marginal foods
  26. The archaeological record indicates that as Paleolithic individuals expanded into new habitats, their population density _______
  27. Modern day Iraw is better known to archaeologists studying Old World civilizations as a part of the region of...
  28. Describe WT15000 (Nariokotome) if he were to have reached adulthood
    Could've been close to 6ft, Cranial capacity ~909cc
  29. A pattern of seasonal settlement movements from one resource zone to another is known as...
  30. According to genetic evidence, how long ago did modern H. sapiens and Neanderthals begin interbreeding?
    Between 80-50kya
  31. Based on the cultural data, which of the following best describes the opinion of the majority of archaeologists regarding the origins of Native Americans?
    Bering land bridge
  32. What factor is associated with the shift away from big game hunting in the temperate latitudes?
  33. What kinds of art characterize the Upper Paleolithic?
    Portable art and cave art
  34. What is the difference between animal domestication in the New and Old Worlds?
    New world societies didn't domesticate animals
  35. Maya hieroglyphics on stelae recorded what subject?
    Proclaim the ancestry and noble deeds of actual Maya rulers and provide a precise chronology of major events
  36. The earliest Americans are known to have arrived in the Americas no later than...
    between 20kya-13.5kya
  37. The development of population density and overall cultural elaboration in the southwestern US occurred as a result of...
  38. In what area of North America did highly organized sedentary communities develop based primarily on coastal resources and without domesticated crops?
    northwestern US
  39. Which theory for the settlement of the New world relies on a passage to the west coast of the Americas using canoes, rafts, or forms of water transport?
    Pacific Coastal Route
  40. The site of Star Carr, near the North Sea coast, served as a seasonal...
    hunting ground
  41. According to physical anthropologists, which hominin group is likely the most recent ancestor of modern H. sapiens?
    Homo heidelbergensis
  42. What is the relationship between the adoption of agriculture and climate change in South America?
    El niño caused random storms and rainfall patterns changed and so the crops they grew had to change
  43. Modern H. sapiens emerged in Africa about _____ years ago
  44. Social stratification accompanies the earliest states, which means there is archaeological evidence of...
    few elite individuals who controlled access to goods and services produced by others
  45. Neanderthal physical morphology is largely considered an adaptation to ________?
    colder weather
  46. Describe the condition of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal
    A nearly complete skeleton was found buried in a shallow grave in a flexed position
  47. What can be said of scientific inquiry used to understand global climate change?
    climate change will continue to happen and humans have made a large impact on it
  48. What factor contributed to the concentration of wealth and the emergence of social hierarchies during the Longshan period?
    specialization and status differences
  49. Post-Pleistocene cultures in Europe are called...
  50. Which contemporary human population exhibits the morphology of the earliest human remains in the Americas?
  51. The _______ society was associated with the initial development of cultural unity and centralized authority in the northern Peruvian highlands and coast
  52. Describe the post-cranial remains from the Dmanisi. What connections to African populations do these bones suggest?
    Thinner supraorbital torus. Small brain. Archaeologists believe that the dmanisi were the first to leave Africa
  53. What find at Schöningen sheds light on the hunting capabilities of premodern humans?
    6ft spears
  54. The morphological pattern for Upper Paleolithic Europeans is established at which site in southern France?
  55. At this point, we can say with some certainty that the earliest hominids outside of Africa belong to which genus?
    homo erectus
  56. The ziggurat is typically associated with which ancient civilization?
  57. Domestication is defined as...
    a state of interdependence between humans and selected plant/animal species
  58. A cultigen is defined as...
    a plant that is wholly dependent on humans
  59. By the end of the Ice Age, there may have been ___ humans, or ___ for every 10 square miles of land
    5 million, 1
  60. What is the time period for Upper Paleolithic culture in Western Europe?
    Beginning ~40kya-30kya, ending about 10kya
  61. Where is the Herto site located?
  62. Agriculture is defined as...
    cultural activities associated with planting, herding, processing, or domesticating species
  63. Which of the Mesoamerican cities was the Aztex capital?
  64. The bottle gourd appears to have a much different origin than other New World domesticates. What explains its origins?
    suspected that it was from floating across the Atlantic to the Americas but they think now it was brought over by Asians
  65. The earliest human occupation in Australia dates to ____
  66. What definition best characterizes the term "civilization"?
    the larger social order that includes states related by language, traditions, history, economic ties and other shared cultural aspects
  67. What is the main problem with the Bering land bridge hypothesis?
    Glaciers blocked entry to the rest of North America until about 15kya
  68. Researchers agree that the earliest farming cultures in Europe likely resulted from...
    sparctic migrations by neolithic farmers
  69. The earliest Neanderthal fossils date to _____ years ago
  70. Pollen is an example of what type of archaeobotanical remains?
    plant microfossils
  71. Premodern H. sapiens clearly originate in which continent?
  72. Stone tools flaked on both sides characterize which prehistoric tool industry?
  73. The term "city" applies to urban centers that are characterized by...
    social complexity, formal non-kin organization, diverse craft and administrative specialists, supported by smaller agricultural towns
  74. The appearance of cities in Mesopotamia has been linked to what factors?
    Rich, fertile soil
  75. Rock are in Africa dates to about ____ years ago
  76. Compared to Homo erectus, the crania of the earliest premodern Homo sapiens exhibit what features?
    has a chin and a more narrow cranial base
  77. What are examples of New World domesticates?
    corn, potatoes, yams, beans
  78. Archaeologists agree that to date, the earliest true city yet discovered is...
  79. What part of the Old World has yet to yield Neanderthal remains?
  80. What are the diagnostic characteristics of the typical Neanderthal cranium?
    Large brain, brain case is low and long, brow ridges arch
  81. What are some common traits of animals suited for domestication?
    hierarchical herds, nonterritorial, not likely to flee when frightened
  82. What is the approximate date of the St. Césaire stone tool assemblage?
  83. The expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples through much of sub-Saharan Africa has been tied to what process?
    Driving herds of domestic goats and cattle and acquiring technology of ironworking
  84. What locations in the Mid East have yielded Neanderthal finds?
    Israel and Iraq
  85. What tool industries typify the Upper Paleolithic?
    Magdalenian blade technology, indirect protrusion, solutrean
  86. How does Neanderthal cranial capacity compare to other hominins?
    They have a much larger capacity at 1520cc, modern homo sapiens at ~ 1,350
  87. Describe the geographic dispersal of Middle Pleistocene hominins
    Widely dispersed, all throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, Europe was more densely populated
  88. Maize is far from an ideal crop. Why?
    requires more space and moisture, harder to harvest
  89. Why is it believed that human populations were largely to blame for mega fauna extinctions of the late Pleistocene?
    they used the bones of other animals they had killed to kill new ones
  90. Which premodern H. sapiens originated in Western Europe?
  91. Sites like Ohallo II demonstrate that some food-collecting communities experiences economic changes as long ago as the Last Glacial Maximum, which led to...
    the use of a wide range of plants and animals as food
  92. The seemingly sudden appearance of fully domesticated sheep, goats, wheat, and barley in southeastern Europe, along with a host of specific Near Eastern cultural traits is evidence for...
  93. Most Neanderthal remains have been found in which part of the world?
    Mainly Europe
  94. What factors have been associated with the end of Teotihuacán?
    Thought to have fallen through an uprising that may have resulted from restricted access to food or because the symbolic system that supported the elites was no longer capable of maintaining social order
  95. What about the Shanidar 1 remains is noteworthy? What does this suggest about the society in which this individual lived?
    the skeleton was really beat up, they were compassionate and advanced
  96. Beringia is an important part of which theory that explains the populating of the Americas by groups of H. sapiens?
    Bering Land Bridge theory
  97. Which sites yields the earliest examples of modern H. sapiens?
    Southern Ethiopia
  98. What site has yielded the most H. erectus remains to date?
  99. Groups that subsist on a wide range of locally available foods which are brought back to base camps are called...
  100. What do we call the Neanderthal stone tool industry?
  101. New World domesticates include an important triad of crops that eventually came together in the milpa intercropping system. These domesticates include beans, squash and...
  102. Kwang-chih Chang has linked the development of civilization in China to...
  103. Evidence of early H. sapiens in Africa begin about _____ years ago
  104. What common factor does Bruce Trigger propose all early civilizations share?
    The need to manage increasingly complex societies through political and administrative institutions
  105. Arie Issar and Mattanyah Zohar have argued that what factor was likely responsible for the development of early civilization in the Near East?
    Fluctuating availability of water resources caused by major climate changes
  106. In the lower Tigris-Euphrates Valley, _____________ poisoned the fields once farmed by Ubaidians and Sumerians
  107. The legendary Xia dynasty, proclaimed in myth as the dawn of the Chinese civilization, may be evidenced in the increased complexity of Erlitou at around _____ years ago
  108. The development of formal, non-kin organization is important to which development in human prehistory?
  109. What characteristics of wild grasses are likely to have been selected for by foragers in the process of domestication?
    a high amount of genetic variability and genetic modification. they grew in dense patches and reproduced quickly
  110. What features distinguish the cranium of Homo erectus from earlier forms?
    Thick cranial bones, robust supraorbital torus, nuchal torus, wide cranial base, reduction in dentition, no chin
  111. Which sites are good candidates for the title "earliest occupation of the New World"?
    South American sites (Pacific Coastal Route),  North America near Asia (Bering Land Bridge), North America (North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor) OR the Olmec civilization, including San Lorenzo and La Venta
  112. Post-Pleistocene cultures in the Middle East are called...
  113. How do subsistence strategies change in the early Holocene?
    hunting smaller game, gathering, fishing
  114. What are examples of Neanderthal mortuary practices?
    Deliberate, ritualistic burials
  115. What species likely represents the first domesticated animal?
  116. Which Western European site suggests a genetic connection between Neanderthals and modern H. sapiens?
    The Abrigo du Largar Velho in Portugal, show interbreeding between early humans and Neanderthals
  117. The Olmec culture was located primarily...
    Southern Gulf Coast (Veracruz, San Lorenzo and La Venta)
  118. Describe the subsistence strategy of Neanderthals
    Hunter-gatherers, focused hunting of big game using spears then bow and arrows. no specific staple foods
  119. Describe the thesis of the regional continuity theory
    the multi-regional hypothesis which maintained its own evolutionary trajectory. all evolved in parallel into the same species
  120. Where did fluted stone tool industry originate?
    north america
  121. Lascaux and Altamira are famous for...
    cave wall paintings
  122. Which theory for the human settlement of the New World does not rely on the cycle of glacial and inter-glacial periods?
    Pacific Coastal Routes, follow island chain at the northern extent of the pacific rim into South America
  123. What is an atlatl?
    A stick used by Eskimos and early American Indians to propel a spear or dart for hunting
  124. What plant resource was commonly exploited by early collectors in what is today known as California?
    oak forests and acorns
  125. What phenomenon may account for the urbanization of the Indus Valley?
    Deforestation, flooding, and other environmental changes
  126. Which location contains majority of all Middle Pleistocene hominin remains?
    Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos
  127. What archaeological feature associated with the development of agriculture has been interpreted as indicative of the development of economically and socially cohesive communities in the Near East?
    Mud granaries and other food storage features and Dhra. cultivation and storage of wild plants
  128. The term for collector-type hunter-gatherers from the Near East ca. 12,000ya is...
  129. The stone tool industry of premodern H. sapiens in the Middle Pleistocene builds on which tool tradition?
  130. The decline of Sumerian civilization may be linked to...
    dependence on irrigation agriculture and they linked much of its energy to fruitless internal competition
  131. The switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Egypt has been explained as the result of...
    changing rainfall patterns since late Pleistocene. Increased participation broadened and overflowed the Nile. Droughts in the Sahara brought people to the Nile. Wild resources were insufficient to feed the growing populations
  132. Describe the thesis of the partial replacement theory
    It proposes that the first modern humans evolved in Africa, but when they migrated into other regions they did not simply replace existing human populations. Rather, they interbred to a limited degree with late archaic humans resulting in hybrid population
  133. Our digestive systems are well adapted to what kind of subsistence strategy?
  134. How do the Kow Swamp remains differ from those found at Lake Mungo?
    Kow swamp were more gracile, Kow swamp had receding foreheads, heavy supraorbital tori, thick bones
  135. According to Chinese physical anthropologists, Asia premodern H. sapiens show a mix of traits. The more ancestral characteristics include...
    cranial capacity of 1120cc, much less prognathism, rounded brain case OR sagittal ridge and flattened nasal bones
  136. The development of the Egyptian civilization may be linked to influence from...
    The Nile river, Mesopotamia
  137. What are the examples of "biochemical signatures of diet" used by physical anthropologists?
    Ratio of carbon 12 to 14, ratio of nitrogen 15 to 14, Sr/Ca, lead traces
  138. The increase in human dental caries hypoplasias, periodontal disease and overall reduction in tooth size in Natufian skeletons can be attributed to...
    a diet of starchy cereal grains
  139. States, as defined my Morton Fried, are characterized by...
    territorial political organization, true social classes - social stratification, citizenship, administrative bureaucracies, monopoly on the use of force, institutions OR the concept of citizenship
  140. Describe the general morphology of H. floresiensis
    3ft tall, cranial capacity of 300cc, resemble homo erectus
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Anthro final
2014-04-28 23:42:25
anthro final
Not sure how accurate all of these are. If the answer is "?" then we would not find it, and if it says "OR" then we had 2 different answers, so let me know if you have them!
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