Lower Respiratory

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  1. What is an embolus?
    Clot that is moving
  2. What is a pulmonary embolism?
    Obstruction of one of the pulmonary arteries or it's branches (medical emergency)
  3. What can an embolus be?
    Blood clot, air, or farfar
  4. What what is Virchow's Triad?
    Venous stasis, disruption of vessel lining, hypercoagulability (increased blood clotting)
  5. What are some signs and symptoms of a Pulmonary Embolism?
    Severe pain and sudden dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, restlessness and shock
  6. What happens to the pulmonary artery?
    sudden death of the main section of it.
  7. What are some ways to diagnosis a pulmonay embolism?
    EKG, ABGs, D-dimer, CT or MRI
  8. What is a D-dimer Test?
    A blood test that measures a substance released as a blood clot breaks up.
  9. What is the normal D-dimer lab value?
    110-250 ng/mL
  10. What is the normal D-dimer lab value?
    110-250 ng/mL
  11. What is the treatment of a pulmonary embolism?
    (Prevent extention of the clot) Heparin IV or SQ for 7-10 days, O2, oral anticoagulant for 12 wks, filter placed in IVC (green filled filter), embolectomy (removal of clot)
  12. What are complications of a pulmonary embolism?
    increase in BP in pulmonary circulation, increased pressure in pulmonary artery.
  13. What is pulmonary hypertension?
    Pressures in the arteries rise above 30 mmHg systolic and MAP above 15 mmHg
  14. Pulmonary hypertension is a result of what?
    Heart disease and/or lung disease. R ventricle works harder t push blood into lungs.
  15. What is the cause of Pulmonary hypertension?
    Unknown cause; Primary - females 20-40; hereditary tendency Secondary - other disorders.
  16. What are the signs and symptoms of Pulmonary hypertension?
    DOE (dyspnea on exertion), fatigue, crackles and decreased breath sounds, cyanosis and tachycardia; symptoms of underlying reps or card disease.
  17. What is the life expectancy of a patient with pulmonary hypertension?
    2-3 yrs without transplant (heart or lung transplant needed)
  18. What is the treatment of pulmonary hypertension?
    • No cure (transplant)
    • Secondary: treat underlying condition
    • Supportive care: low-sodium diet, diuretics, O2, cardiac monitoring, BR, High Fowlers/Fowlers, comfort measures, Vasodilators and Anticoagulants
  19. What is chest trauma?
    Minor or life threatening; partial or complete disruption of respiratory or cardiac function. (Blunt vs Penetrating trauma)
  20. What is a pulmonary contusion?
    chest wall abruptly compressed; alveoli and pulmonary arteriolar rupture. Inflammation and edema impairing surfactant production.
  21. What are the signs and symptoms of  a pulmonary contusion?
    Chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, anxiety
  22. What are fractures?
    Blunt and/or penetrating; primary sign: Inspiratory pain
  23. What are you at risk for with fractures?
    Pneumonia, bruising, crepitus, decreased breath sounds
Card Set
Lower Respiratory
Test 2
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