BIO Final Review

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BIO Final Review
2014-04-26 13:15:10
Final Review Questions
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  1. Addison’s Disease
    Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex
  2. Acromegaly
    Hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty
  3. Diabetes Mellitus
    Hyposecretion of insulin
  4. Pituitary Dwarfism
    Hyposecretion of growth hormone
  5. Graves’ Disease
    Autoimmune disorder of the thyroid
  6. Cushing’s Disease
    Hypersecretion of adrenal cortex
  7. Thyroid
    Major Regulator of metabolism; produces the body’s major metabolic hormones
  8. Adrenal medulla and cortex
    controls fight or flight, on top of kidneys; cortex produces hormones that control sodium levels
  9. Hypophysis
    Stimulates other endocrine glands; pituitary gland
  10. Parathyroid
    Controls calcium and potassium levels by removal from bone tissue
  11. Pancreas
    Produces hormones that regulate glucose (both exocrine and endocrine)
  12. Thymus
    normal development of the immune response
  13. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
    The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level
  14. hormones that regulate blood sugar levels
    insulin and glucagon
  15. e the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin
    beta cells
  16. the pancreatic islet cells that produce glucagon
    alpha cells
  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of
  18. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is
    the thyroid gland
  19. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of
  20. Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known
    down regulation
  21. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on
    the presence of the appropriate receptors
  22. Thyroid hormone enters target cells in a manner similar to
    steroid hormones because both diffuse easily into target cells.
  23. The major targets of growth hormone are
    bones and skeletal muscles
  24. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through
    targeting the bone and activating the osteoclasts
  25. Leptin is secreted by
  26. the mechanism of calcium homeostasis
    PTH most important regulator of calcium
  27. the function of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males
    Stimulates sperm production
  28. Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs is
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  29. The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
  30. hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis
    • ACTH
    • TSH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • GH
    • Prolactin (PRL)
  31. steroid-based hormones
    • Aldosterone
    • Cortisone
    • Estrogen
  32. the categories of endocrine gland stimuli
    • Humoral
    • Neural
    • Hormonal
  33. Eosinophil
    • -(2% - 4%) bilobed nucleus; red cytoplasmic granules
    • Kills parasitic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma
  34. Neutrophil
    • (50% - 70%) multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules
    • Phagocytize bacteria
  35. Lymphocytes
    • (25% OR MORE) spherical or indented nucleus; pale blue cytoplasm
    • Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
  36. Basophil
    • (LESS THAN 1%) bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black cytoplasmic granules
    • Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant
  37. Monocytes
    • (3% - 8%) U- or kidney-shaped nucleus; gray-blue cytoplasm
    • Phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in the tissues
  38. Eicosanoids
    Third class of hormones (ex: prostaglandins, leukotrienes, paracrines)
  39. Structural and functional characteristics of hypophysis
    • Anterior-true gland (adenohypiphysis), makes and releases hormones
    • Posterior-neural tissue, stores and releases hormones
  40. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the
    Hypophyseal portal system
  41. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary gland is through the
    hypothalamal/hypophyseal tract
  42. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because
    it is a storage area only
  43. LH is also referred to as
  44. ADH secretion will increase when blood pressure...
  45. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is
  46. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the ...
  47. The presence of an exophthalmic goiter is associated with
    Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism)
  48. The effects of hyposecretion of thyroid hormones on the reproductive system includes:
    depressed ovarian function and impotence in males (see pg 607 table 16.2)
  49. Calcitonin
    Decreases plasma calcium
  50. TSH
    Regulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormone
  51. ACTH
    Stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol
  52. Prolactin
    Stimulates milk production
  53. Thymosin
    Promotes development of T-cells
  54. Leukemia
    Cancerous condition involving WBCs
  55. Anemia
    Blood condition in which there is a low oxygen carrying capacity
  56. Polycythemia all types
    Too many RBC’s leading to increased viscosity
  57. Embolism
    Free floating thrombus in the bloodstream
  58. Secondary Polycythemia
    EPO production goes up and oxygen levels are low
  59. the chemical components of the Hemoglobin molecule
    Protein globin and the red pigment heme
  60. the functions of blood
    Transportation of carbon dioxide and oxygen, maintenance of body temperature
  61. blood type O
    Neither anti-sera A nor B clotting present on blood plate
  62. the organs regulating RBC production
  63. The parent cell for all formed elements of blood
  64. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues
  65. How would Aspirin affect blood clothing?
    Anti-prostoglandin drug which inhibits platelet aggregation and platelet plug formation
  66. What is the purpose of RhoGam injections?
    Block mother’s immune response and to prevent her sensitization
  67. In what situations might Rh incompatibility develop?
    RH- mother with RH+ baby
  68. different types of capillaries
    • Continuous (brain and skin) pg 697
    • Fenestrated (kidneys)
    • Sinusoids (liver)
  69. Elastic
    pg 696(pulmonary arteries, the aorta and its branches)
  70. Muscular
    (radial artery, splenic artery)
  71. Arterioles
    (lead to capillaries)
  72. the conditions which can be expected with polycythemia
    • High hematocrit
    • Increased blood volume
    • High blood pressure
  73. the correct developmental sequence of an RBC
    1. reticulocyte
    2. proerythroblast
    3. normoblast
    4. late erythroblast
    (proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte)
  74. Natural anticoagulant found in basophils, mast cells, and the surface of endothelial cells is
  75. The immediate response to blood vessel injury is
    vascular spasms
  76. the regulatory functions of blood
    • Delivery of oxygen
    • Transport of metabolic waste
    • Prevention of blood loss
  77. the protective functions of blood
    • Prevent blood loss
    • Prevent infection
  78. Blood volume restorers include
    • Normal saline
    • Multiple electrolyte solution
    • Human serum albumin
    • Hetastarch
    • Dextran
  79. A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of
    pernicious anemia
  80. characteristic of all leukocytes
    They are all nucleated
  81. The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is
    Hemoglobin F because it has a higher affinity for oxygen
  82. Which blood type is called the universal donor?
  83. Normal range of hemoglobin ________.
    • 13-18 in males
    • 12-16 in females
  84. Name the normal plasma proteins
    • Albumins
    • Fibrinogens
    • Globulins
  85. Thromboembolic disorders are characterized by
    undesirable intravascular clotting or hemostasis in the wrong place.
  86. Know the location of followings: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
    • Epicardium: outer lining of the heart; serous membrane covering the heart
    • Myocardium: heart muscle
    • Endocardium: inner lining of the heartParietal: outer most layer
  87. Epicardium:
    outer lining of the heart; serous membrane covering the heart
  88. Myocardium:
    heart muscle
  89. Endocardium:
    inner lining of the heart
  90. Parietal:
    outer most layer
  91. Know the followings: Purkinje fibers, AV bundle, SA node, AV node
    • Purkinje fibers: network found in the ventricular myocardium
    • AV bundle: found in the interventricular septum
    • SA node: pacemaker of the heart
    • AV node: impulse is temporarily delayed
  92. Purkinje fibers:
    network found in the ventricular myocardium
  93. AV bundle:
    found in the interventricular septum
  94. SA node:
    pacemaker of the heart
  95. AV node:
    impulse is temporarily delayed
  96. Know the function and location for the followings; Pulmonary valves, Aortic valve, Mitral valve, and Tricuspid valve
    • Pulmonary valves: prevents backflow in the right ventricle
    • Aortic valve: prevents backflow into the left ventricle
    • Mitral valve (bicuspid): prevents backflow into the left atrium
    • Tricuspid valve: prevents backflow into the right atrium
  97. Pulmonary valves:
    prevents backflow in the right ventricle
  98. Aortic valve:
    prevents backflow into the left ventricle
  99. Mitral valve (bicuspid):
    prevents backflow into the left atrium
  100. Tricuspid valve:
    prevents backflow into the right atrium
  101. Normal heart sounds are caused by
    closing of the valves
  102. Ventricles are not
    in diastole when the semilunar valves are open
  103. why the left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall?
    In order to pump blood with greater pressure.
  104. Damage to the_______ is referred to as heart block
    AV node
  105. The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates:
    atrial depolarization
  106. The ___________ carry blood to capillaries in the myocardium.
    coronary arteries
  107. Length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells is longer than the same skeletal muscle cells to:
    prevent titanic contractions
  108. What happens to the heart rate if the vagal nerves to the heart were cut?
    Heart rate increases by nearly 25 beats
  109. Which blood vessels receive blood during ventricular systole?
    Pulmonary trunk and aorta
  110. Isovolumetric contraction refers to
    refers to the short period of time during which ventricles are completely closed
  111. Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is (higher/lower) than in the systemic circulation.
  112. The three main factors influencing blood pressure
    • Cardiac output
    • Peripheral resistance
    • Blood volume resistance
  113. The chemicals which help regulate blood pressure
    • ADH
    • ANP/antrial natrietic peptide
    • Angiotensin II
  114. Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
    Tunica intima
  115. Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of
  116. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
    Hepatic portal circulation
  117. The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are ...
    the muscular arteries
  118. This process provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure
    Renal regulation
  119. Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
    Tunica media
  120. The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called
    Terminal arterioles