Socio 2: Exam 4

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Socio 2: Exam 4
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Chapter 9: Work Chapter 10: Health Chapter 11: Media
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  1. **Work and the Economy
    -Primary, secondary & Tertiary sectors

    Work and the Economy
    • • The economy is the institution that organizes the production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services.
    • • The primary sector includes farming, fishing, logging, and mining.
    • • In the secondary sector, raw materials are turned into finished goods; manufacturing takes place.
    • • In the tertiary sector, services are bought and sold.
  2. Industrial Revolution
    • an economic shift from agriculture to industry that occurred in the late 18th – early 19th century.
    • – Family production replaced with market production where capitalist owners paid workers wages to produce goods.
  3. Service revolution
    In late 1960s, U.S. economy shifted from a manufacturing to service based economy dominated by service and information occupations.
  4. Deindustrialization
    • A widespread, systematic disinvestment in manufacturing and production capacities.
    • • U.S. manufacturers lost 2.7 million jobs since July 2000.
    • • Lost manufacturing jobs often replaced with unstable, low paying service jobs, or no jobs at all, sometimes resulting in a significant loss of revenue to support basic public services such as police, fire protection and schools.
    • • During WWII women began entering the workforce in large numbers.
    • – After the war many women were forced back into low paying female-­‐dominated occupations or back to their homes.
    • • Labor force participation rates have steadily increased for white, black and Hispanic women since World War II.
    • • The elderly are increasingly returning to work or working longer because: – They are living longer, some cannot afford to live on their retirement income, and many just want to.
    • • For 2007, there were 23.9 million foreign workers in the United States
    • • Account for half or more of the increase in administrative support, services, precision, production, craft and repair, and operators, fabricators, and laborers.
    • – Overrepresented in low-­paying occupations which do not require high school degrees.
    • – Immigrants settle in regions with economic opportunities, seeking established ethnic enclaves providing interpersonal and job support.
  5. **Functionalist Perspective (work)
    • • Work serves specific functions in society and provides us with some predictability about our life experience: 
    • – Helps determine when we get married, have children, or buy a home.
    • – Serves as an important social structure as we become stratified according to our occupations and our income.
    • – The way we live is dependent on the work of thousands.

    • • Work can also produce a set of dysfunctions which can lead to social problems 
    • – Getting too involved in work may lead to job stress, overwork and job dissatisfaction.
    • – Technology can also lead to job and wage losses.
  6. Scientific Management  (part of func?)
    • Frederick Taylor broke down functional elements of work, identifying the most efficient and fastest way to complete a task.

    – Also had ideas about the organization of work- need a clear authority structure, task specialization, which shifted power to management.
  7. Conflict Perspective (WORK)
    -Deskilling
    -Marx
    -Webber
    -Deskilling ‐ the systematic reconstruction of jobs so that they require fewer skills and management has more control over workers.

    • The process by which work tasks are broken into simple routines requiring little training; usually accompanied by the use of machinery to replace labor.

    • Marx: power is determined by one’s relationship to the means of production.

    • Conflict theorists argue that capitalist and corporate leaders maintain their power and economic advantage at the expense of their workers and the general public. 

    • Marx predicted capitalism would disappear, but it has grown stronger, increasing the level of social and economic inequalities in U.S.

    Weber:
  8. **Feminist Perspective (WORK)
    • Feminist theorists argue that work is a gendered institution: – Women and men treated unequally.

    • • Sexual division of labor
    • – the assignment of different tasks/work to men and women. 
    • – Leads to a devaluing of female workers and their work.

    • There is no single occupation nor no country in the world where women make the same amount of money as men.

    -Wage gap: 2010 woman made 77.4 cents  for every dollar earned by man

    • **What Does It Mean to Me?
    • • Though more women are earning MBAs, the number of women female chief executives continues to be low.
    • • In 2005, only 16 percent of Fortune 500 corporate officers were women, only nine female CEOs (1.6 percent) (Creswell 2006).
    • • What would take to increase the number of female chief executives?
  9. ** Interactionist Perspective (WORK)
    • According to symbolic interactionists, labels and meanings are attached to one’s work (even one’s college major.)

    • • These social constructs create an order to our work and our lives, but can also create social problems.
    • – These constructs can serve as the basis of job discrimination.
    • – The persistence of stigma negatively impacts the disabled in the hiring process.
  10. **Unemployment and Underemployment
    • • 15.3 million Americans were unemployed in December 2009
    • – Racial and ethnic minorities have higher unemployment rates than whites.
    • • Underemployment -­‐ the number of employed individuals who are working in a job that underpays them, is not equal to their skill level, or involves fewer working hours.
    • – Persons who are young, non-­‐college educated and ethnic/racial minorities have higher underemployment rates.

    • Unemployment is linked with higher levels of alienation, anxiety, depression, and overall health. Periods of unemployment are related to increased rates of suicide and spousal abuse.
  11. ** Globalization:
    • Positive Aspects of Globalization  
    • Downsides to Globalization
    • Process whereby goods, information, people, communication, and forms of culture move across national boundaries.
    • • Not just an economic phenomenon:
    • – Globalization has political, social, and cultural implications.

    • • Positive Aspects of Globalization
    • – Created a world market where all businesses, employers, and employees must compete.
    • – Competition keeps corporations focused on innovation, quality, and production.
    • – Increasing productivity and output creates more jobs and stimulates economic growth.
    • – Created a new middle class and reducing poverty in many countries.
    • – U.S. experienced a doubling in foreign trade during the 1990s, which lead to the creation of more than 17 million new jobs

    • • Downsides to Globalization
    • –Worker security has declined everywhere.
    • – Skilled workers are threatened by the unfair competition of low‐cost sweatshops, of cheaper labor to be found in other nations.
    • – More than 3 million U.S. manufacturing jobs were lost from 2001 to 2004.
    • – High‐paying jobs migrated to other countries, in a process characterized as the “race to the bottom.”
  12. **Contingent or Temporary Workers
    -Continggent
    -Outsourcing
    -Off shoring
    • • The contingent workforce: composed of full time or part time temporary workers. 
    • – Are used on temporary projects, for work overloads, or to fill in for employees who are vacationing, sick or on family leave,
    • – Are also used to eliminate positions and reduce costs.

    • Outsourcing - a practice of hiring external contractors to do the jobs that regular work staff had previously completed.

    • Offshoring- outsourcing internationally.
  13. **A livable wage
    -current minimum wage?
    • In 1990, the federal minimum wage was $3.80 per hour; in 1997 was increased to $5.15 per hour. In 2014, it is $7.25 per hour.

    • Low-­‐wage workers are likely to be minority, female, non-­‐college educated, non-­‐union, and in low end sales and service occupations.
  14. **Discrimination at the workplace
    • • Federal law prohibits workplace discrimination based on:
    • – Race, sex, religion, national origin, age or disability
    • – Under current federal law, discrimination based on sexual orientation is not prohibited.

    • • The EEOC has received between 75,000 and 95,000 charges annually since 1997 (EEOC 2009).
    • – Complaints of discrimination based on national origin have increased 20% over the last eight years.
  15. **U.S. Garment Industry and Sweat Shop Labor 
    -sweatshop
    • 1994 U.S. GAO concluded that “sweatshop working conditions” remain a major problem in the U.S. garment industry, and it “differs little from that at the turn of the century.” 

    • • Sweatshop a workplace that violates more than one federal or state labor law, including exploitation of workers.
    • – Examples include.
    • • No livable wages or benefits.
    • • Poor and hazardous working conditions.
    • • Possible verbal or physical abuse.
    • • Employers who fail to treat workers with dignity and violate basic human rights.
    • • Businesses that violate wage or child labor laws and safety or health regulations.
    • • A random sample of apparel manufacturers in Southern California in 1996 revealed that 43% of manufacturers failed to pay minimum wage, 55% had overtime liabilities, and 1/3 were not registered with the state.
  16. Community, Policy, and Social Action Federal Policies
    • U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) was created to: foster and promote the welfare of U.S. wage earners, to improve working conditions, and to advance opportunities for profitable employment.

    • • Two Major Current Debates – Minimum Wage
    • • Unions and poverty organizations support raising minimum wage saying it will help the working poor or low income families.
    • • Members of the business community oppose it saying that it would put an unnecessary stress on medium or small businesses and would not decrease poverty. 
    • –No action has been taken to prohibit workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation.
  17. **Expanding Employment Opportunities for Women
    • Nontraditional Employment for Women (NEW) Act was crafted to broaden the range of Job Training Placement Administration (JTPA) training and placement for women.

    • • Women in Apprenticeship and Nontraditional Occupations (WANTO) Act was designed to provide technical assistance to employers and labor groups.
    • • Funding for WANTO ended in 2003
    • • Initially funded by WANTO, Hard Hatted Women continues as the only community nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting women in high‐wage, nontraditional, blue‐collar careers.
  18. **Worker‐Friendly Businesses—Conducting Business a Different Way
    • Features such as dependent care, flex time, more leave time, enhanced benefits – Reduced employee turnover, increased employee satisfaction and improved worker productivity
  19. **Organized and Fighting Back (WORK)
    • Labor unions have served as bargaining agents for workers, fighting for fair wages, safe work environments, and benefits from employers.

    • • In 1983, membership was 20.1 percent, 17.7 million union members. For 2008, membership was 12.4 percent, 16.1 million members.
    • • In a changing and global economy, unions need to develop multi‐level strategies to serve their membership and grow in numbers.
  20. **Recession:
    when the overall state of the economy declines, measured by multiple indivators: a decline in the gross domestic product (GDP--the total production of goods and services) for two or more consecutive quarters, an increase in unepmployment rates and a decline in housing prices and values.
  21. **Demographic Trends:
    -WW 2: women entered the workplace as blue-collar, domestic or service workers
  22. **Elderly employment
    is on the rise because of longer living ages, but also because government policies have eliminated mandatory retirements and outlawed age discrimination in the workplace. They were encouraged to go back to work with the removal of age restrictions and taxes on their earned wages, also stung by economic recession so they delay retirement.
  23. **Foreign born workers:
    There were 24.4 million oregin workers in the US (about 16% of the labor force)

    -They are more likely to be male, less educated, and younger than native-born workers-More than 80% of the labor force increase among workers b/w35 to 44 years of age can be attributed to the increase in foreign born workers

    -account for half or more of the increase in the job categories of: administrative support, service, precision production, craft and repair, operators, fabricators and laborers

    • -overrepresented in low-paying occupations that do not require a HS diploma
    • -40% lived in west and NE
  24. **Scientific Management (part of Functionalism):
    Frederick Taylor believe that with the right tools, and perfect system, any worker could improve his/her work productivity for the benefit of the company-separated planning from operation groups, insisted on task specialization and a clear authority section.
  25. Harry Braverman:
    argued that by altering production systems, capitalists and management increase their control over workers; management controls each step of the labor process and its mode of excustion; workers lose their power when their skilled labor is taken away
  26. Underemployment:
     -Underemployment: The number of emplyed individuals who are working in a job that underpays them, is not equal to their skill level, or involves fewer working hours than they would prefer (taking a part time job instead of full time); people who are young, non-college educated and members of ethnic/racial minorities have higher underemployment rates

    -minority groups: at least 40% of the members of each minority  were underemployed, with blacks and Puerto Ricans having highest rates of labor force non participation
  27. Outsourcing:
    India is expected to receive more than half of the US/European jobs
  28. -NIOSH (National institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
    -defined job stress as the harmful emotional or physical response that occurs when a job's characteristics do not match the capablilities, resources or needs of the worker.
  29. **Discrimination Laws-
    Equal Employment Oppurtunity COmmission (EEOC)

    "Age Discimination in Employment Act"
     Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was established in 1964 by Title VII of the Civil Rights Acts; monitors and enforces discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin

    -discrimination based on age was added in 1967 with passage of "Age Discimination in Employment Act" in Title 1 and Title 5  of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  30. Sweatshops and Fair Labor Standards act (FLSA)
    All US manufactureers must follow the Fair Labor Standards act (FLSA) which establishes federal minimum wage, overtime, child labor and industrial homework standards; Dept of Labor's Wage and Hour division makes routine enforcement sweeps in major garment centers, finding business that are in violation of the FLSA
  31. Worker's rights:
    -Employee Retirement Income Security Act:
    -Occupational Safety and Healthy Act  
    -The Family and Medical Leave act:
    -Employee Retirement Income Security Act: pension and eslfarie beefit plans

    -Occupational Safety and Healthy Act (ensuring work and a workplace free from serious hazards

    -The Family and Medical Leave act: granting eligible employees as many as 12 weeks of unpaid peave for family care or medical leave
  32. **Health, United States, 2008 – National Center for Health Statistics
    • • Life expectancy: 78.5 years.
    • • Gaps between Blacks and Whites and men and women narrowing
    • • Heart Disease remains leading cause of death, accounting for 617,00 in 2008.
    • • The U.S. spends more on health care per capita than any other country, and health spending continues to increase.

    • However,• Little progress in lowering the U.S. infant mortality rate from 2000-­‐2005
    • • Hispanics, American Indians and Alaska Natives were more likely to be uninsured during 2006
    • • The United States spends more on health per capita than any other country
    • • “Many aspects of the health of the Nation have improved, but the health of some income and racial and ethnic groups has improved less than others and for some groups, the gap has widened.” (National Center for Health Stats 2009:4)
  33. Epidemiology
    • Sociology of health and illness includes the field of epidemiology - the study of the patterns in the distribution and frequency of sickness, injury and death and the social factors that shape them.

    • Studies how health and illness experiences are based on social factors such as gender, age, race, social class, or behavior

    • Has successfully increased public awareness about the risk factors associated with many diseases, illnesses and behaviors.
  34. Fertility
    Mortality
    Morbidity
    • • Fertility -­‐ the level of childbearing for an individual or population.
    • – Determined by biology and medicine
    • – Also by social factors like values, definitions of the role of women, ideal family size, and on the timing of child birth.

    • • Mortality ‐ the incidence of death in a population.
    • – Infant mortality
    • ‐the rate of infant death per 1,000 live births.

    • • Morbidity‐ the study of illnesses and disease.
    • – Incidence rate
    • – Prevalence rate
  35. *Functionalist Perspective  (HEALTH)
    -sick role parts?
    • • Illness has a legitimate place in society.
    • • Parson’s 4 part “Sick role” legitimized illness -­‐ – How society expects sick individuals to act and to be treated while sick.
    • • Recognized the authority given to physicians in managing sickness and illness for society
    • • Medical Industry has functions (both technological and scientific, wide array of services and treatment) and dysfunctions.
    • – Medicine shifted from general practitioner models to a specialist model.
    • – Results in quality care, but at a price
    • – Health care costs have risen, leaving many without adequate coverage and care.
  36. **Conflict Perspective (HEALTH)
    • Conflict theorists identify how patterns of health and illness are not accidental or due solely to an individual’s actions, but are based on systematic inequalities.

    • Instead of defining health care as a right, in our capitalist system, health care is a valuable commodity dispensed to the highest bidder.

    • • The medical system itself ensures that power is maintained by those already in charge. 
    • – The 1910 Flexner report resulted in higher medical standards, but more limited access to medical education and care.

    • What Does It Mean to Me?
    • • The consumer movement has shifted some of the power in the doctor-patient relationship to the patient.
    • • Drug are now marketed directly to consumers.
  37. **Feminist Perspective (HEALTH)
    • • Throughout history there are examples of medical and scientific explanations for women’s health and illnesses that reflect dominant and negative conceptions of women.
    • • Since 1930’s women’s natural physical conditions and experiences, like child birth, menopause and premenstrual syndrome, have been medicalized:
    • • The process through which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem

    • What Does It Mean to Me?
    • • A mommy job is a cosmetic surgical procedure that may include a breast lift, a tummy tuck, and liposuction to reduce the stretch marks, slackened skin, and excess fat that result from pregnancy and child birth.
  38. **Interactionist Perspective (HEALTH)
    • • Health, illness and medical responses are socially constructed and maintained.
    • • The patient defines their illness or disease by a socially constructed definition of the disease which includes a set of images, beliefs, and perceptions.
    • • Research shows that doctors’ power depends on their cultural authority, economic independence, and cultural differences between parents and assumed superiority to parents.
    • • Those who are educated, younger, and those who ask more questions and express more concerns receive more information.
  39. **Health Inequalities Gender
    • While women live longer than men, women experience higher rates of nonfatal chronic conditions.

    • Men experience higher rates of fatal illness, dying more quickly than women when illness occurs.

    • These differences have been attributed to three factors: genetics, risk taking, and health care.

    • Though by the age of 75, men die of cancer at twice the rate of women, there is little education for men in cancer self-detection and prevention.
  40. **Social Class (HEALTH)
    • • Social class is a major determinant of one’s health and life expectancy.
    • • Those lower in the socioeconomic ladder have worse health than those above
    • • This relationship has been attributed to:
    • – Hazardous working
    • – Poor neighborhoods exposed to pollution 
    • – Inadequate and unsafe housing 
    • – Diet 
    • – Access to health care

    • Poor children are particularly at risk
  41. **Education (HEALTH)
    • • The higher your education, the better your health (no matter how it is measured
    • —mortality, morbidity or other general health measures).
    • • Schooling might be a more important correlate to good health than is one’s occupation or income.
    • • Educated individuals are more likely to:
    • – Practice a healthier lifestyle
    • – Visit their primary physicians more
    • –  Use new medical technologies or medicines.
    • – Be aware of the health consequences of smoking and drinking.
    • – Transmit their healthier lifestyle to their children.
  42. **The Rising Cost of Healthcare
    • The United States spends about 16 percent of its GDP on health care—the largest expenditure in this category among industrialized countries. Still…

    – “Comparative analyses consistently show the United States underperforms relative to other countries on most dimensions of [health] performance” (Davis et al. 2007:viii).

    • • Health care costs rising because of:
    • – Increases in the application of technology.
    • – The aging population of the United States. 
    • – Overall demand for health care.
    • – The amount of uncompensated care.
    • – The cost of prescription drugs.
    • – Medical doctors face rising costs of malpractice insurance.
  43. **Inequalities in Health Insurance
    • • In 2008, 46.3 million Americans were uninsured
    • • Nearly 4/5 of those without health insurance were in the labor force or had at least one parent who was employed.
    • • In 2009, 60 percent of employers offered health benefits to employees.
    • • Most of the working poor are not eligible for public assistance medical programs
    • • 75.6 percent of households with incomes less than $25,000 received health insurance
    • • Children under 18 and Hispanic American are less likely to have health insurance

    • =>What Does It Mean to Me?
    • • Policy analysts, advocates, and health care professionals sharply criticized President George W. Bush for stating in 2007, “People have access to health care in America. After all, you just go to an emergency room.”
  44. **Health Care Reform
    • • Americans are upset about the cost of health care, no universal coverage, and lack of uniformity for quality health care
    • • The Clinton administration failed to pass its 1993 Health Security Act which would have required all employers to provide health insurance
    • • Congress passed a compromise health reform bill in March 2010, which provides several patient protections and incentives for small business.
    • • President Obama said the bill enshrined, “the core principle that everybody should have some basic security when it comes to their health care”
  45. **State Health Care Reforms
    • Several states have aggressively moved forward on health reform with some states committing to providing health coverage for all of their citizens.

    • States with expanded coverage include:
    • – Hawaii
    • – Florida
    • – Massachusetts
    • – Minnesota
    • – Oregon
    • – Washington
  46. **State Children’s Health Insurance Program
    • SCHIP (1997) enables states to implement their own children’s health insurance program for uninsured low income children.

    • Due to increasing need, many states have expanded program coverage and governors report that they are running out of federal funds.

    • The Bush administration vetoed the 2007 expansion bill largely out of concern that it would be too costly and lead to universal health coverage.

    • In 2009, President Obama signed the SCHIP expansion bill, which will insure 11 million children by 2014.
  47. **State Prescription Drug Plans
    • • States have tried plans including 
    • – Drug costs covered by lottery funds
    • – The creation of nonprofit consortiums to purchase drugs in bulk at a discount 
    • – Buying drugs from Canada Work Based Health Clinics
  48. **Work Based Clinics
    • • More U.S. corporations are providing on-site medical care. Advantages include:
    • – Pick up health issues earlier.
    • – Don’t require time away from work.
    • – Create a culture of caring.
    • – Save between 5 and 20 percent
  49. **Community-Based Health Care for Minorities:
    • Minority Americans are more likely to be disconnected from the health care system and a regular doctor.

    • • Unique community‐based health care approaches have emerged to serve these groups. 
    • – Several diabetes campaigns target their message to Hispanics and African Americans, who are at higher risk of the disease than whites.
    • – The Project Brotherhood Black Men’s Clinic in Chicago was created to address the disproportionate disease burden and shorter life expectancy for black men.
  50. Media
    -­‐ the “different technological processes that facilitate communication between the sender of the message and the receiver of that message” Technological developments have increased our range of media choices. 

    • The media has been blamed for directing, creating and promoting social problems.

    • • Has been accused of being a problem itself.
    • – Content‐images that include violence, racism, and sexism
    • – Highly controlled process of dissemination
    • – Creates an unequal advantage for some social group
  51. **Functionalist Perspective (MEDIA)
    • • Examines the structural relationship between the media and the other social institutions.
    • – Political, economic, and social realities set the stage for media content

    • • The media serve as a link between individuals, communities, and nations.
    • – Helps create a collective consciousness, a term used by Émile Durkheim to describe the set of shared norms and beliefs in a society

    • =>Media has been accused of creating serious dysfunctions and social problems in society. 
    • – Link between media-violence viewing and the development of aggression.
    • – Popular media culture undermines the educational system, subverting tradi6onal literacy.
    • – Link between television viewing and poor physical health among children and adults.
  52. **Conflict Perspective (MEDIA)
    • According to conflict theorists, the media can only be fully understood when we learn who controls it.

    • Media organizations are likely to be part of larger conglomerates where profit making is the most important goal.

    • Corporate media play a major role in managing consumer demand.

    • The media, serving the interest of state and corporate powers, support the ruling elite and limits the variety of messages that we read, see and hear.

    • The news divisions of the media cartel are motivated to work for their parent companies and their advertisers, working against the public interest

    • Media consolidation has resulted in just 10 media conglomerates, a change many view with distrust: – “Media power is political power” (Bagdikian, 1997)

    • Miller warned that the most corrosive influence of these 10 media conglomerates was their impact on journalism.

    • Journalism has traditionally been an independent institutional source of political and social power that monitors the actions of other powerful institutions such as politics, economics, and religion.

    • However, conflict theorists remind us that those who control the media are able to manipulate what we see, read, and hear.

    • • For example:
    • 1. A 2008 study found that Spanish-­‐language news outlets generated a larger volume of immigration coverage than English-­‐language outlets (Branton and Dunaway, 2008).
    • 2. English-­‐language news media were more likely to focus on nega6ve aspects of immigra6on than Spanish-­‐language media outlets.
    • 3. Both patterns, are mo6vated by profit and the desire to satisfy their different target audiences-­‐and may shape attitudes among Anglos and Latinos.
  53. ** Feminist Perspective (MEDIA)
    • Attempts to understand how the media represents and devalue women and minorities.

    • Media either utilize stereotypes disparaging women and minorities or completely exclude them from media images.

    • Television is a significant source of gendered messages.

    • • More feminized forms of pop culture such as a female ac6on heroines that are both feminist and feminine
    • – Buffy the Vampire Slayer or Charmed

    • • Feminist scholarship demonstrates how the media undermines women, particularly those who challenge traditional gender roles
    • -Katie Couric critiqued through a “sexualized frame”

    -MissRepresentation.org-organization that expowses how American youth are being sold the concept that women and girls value lies in their youth, beauty and sexuality.
  54. **Interactionist Perspective  (MEDIA)
    • Focuses on the symbols and messages of the media and how it defines our “reality.”

    • Mass media defines what is newsworthy.

    • Women and men iden6fied by their position in government, or their fame and fortune, are automatically newsworthy.

    • Mass media play helps shape public agendas by influencing what people think about, and what is considered as a social problem.

    • Disproportionate coverage of crime and violence in the news media affects its readers and viewers.

    • =>What Does It Mean to Me?
    • • The death of Anna Nicole Smith on February 8, 2007 has been described as a feeding frenzy for our national media with attacks on U.S. troops and the death of four Marines in Iraq taking a back seat to the model’s sudden death in Florida.
  55. **Media Indecency 
    • The digital divide
    • Media is owned by private organizations, but content is regulated by federal standards (FCC).

    • Foul language during the Family Hour increased by 94.8% between 1998 and 2002.

    • • 1997, the FCC implemented the television rating system, used with the V‐Chip control device in televisions, which can block programming by age- based categories or content labels.
    • – Critics argue that the rating system is ineffective: Show producers rate their own programs, and many parents remain confused by the rating system.

    • • The digital divide ‐ the gap separating individuals who have access to new forms of technology from those who do not.
    • – Divide implies a chain of causality: lack of access to the Internet harms one’s life chances. 
    • – Those who are already marginalized in society will have fewer opportunities to access and use computers and the Internet
    • – Symptom of a larger social problem
    • - inequality based on income, educational attainment and ethnicity/ race.
  56. **The divide is also a global phenomenon
    • Less than 10 percent of the world’s popula6on uses the Internet

    • European Union and the United States rank the highest with Internet users-­‐each has more than 200 million users

    • Developing non-­‐Western countries such as those in Africa, South America, and South Asia have less than a million Internet users

    • • Users in less developed countries have basic access problems
    • – Mainly because of income differentials, the Internet is beyond the reach of global citizens.
  57. **Does the media control our lives?
    • • Internet Abuse and Addiction -­‐ excessive use and nonproductive use of the Internet.
    • Five types of addi6on have been identified:
    • • Cybersexual addiction, cyber-­‐relationship addiction, net compulsions (online gambling, shopping or trading), information overload (compulsive web searching) and computer addic6on (computer game playing).

    • Internet abuse is a serious work problem.– Office workers who spend 1 hour a day on non‐ work Internet activities could cost businesses as much as $35 million per year.
  58. **Big Brother is Watching
    • • Consumer privacy has become a major issue.
    • • Websites track your personal informa6on and online activities.
    • • Social media companies have been scru6nized for their use of user information.
  59. **The Problem with Television:
    •Individuals in the industrialized world spend an average of 3 hours per day watching television.

    • • Children spend more than six hours a day with various media combined.
    • – Children and adolescents are par6cularly vulnerable to messages conveyed through television.
    • – Children exposed to violent behavior on film or TV, behave more aggressively immediately afterward, are more tolerant of aggressive behavior, and are desensitized to the pain of others. 
    • – Elevated television viewing and physical inactivity have been found to promote obesity in children.
  60. **Do you trust the news media?
    • Public attitudes about the press have been declining for about 20 years.

    • The public believes that news organizations are working primarily for profit and that journalists are motivated by professional ambition.

    • People are increasingly distrustful of large mul6na6onal corpora6ons which own and control most of the news media.

    • More than 70 percent of the public feels that news organizations are influenced by powerful people and organizations rather than being independent.
  61. **Federal Communications Commission and the Telecommunications Act of 1996
    • FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934

    • FCC regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.

    • • Telecommunications Act of 1996 first major overhaul of the original 1934 act
    • – Was designed to encourage competition and break down media monopolies
    • – Results were, in fact, the opposite
  62. ** Who is watching the media?
    • Numerous organizations monitor media accuracy and content:
    • • Accuracy in the Media (AIM) and Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) are non-­‐profit, grassroots organiza6ons-­‐
    • – Attempts to expose biased and inaccurate news coverage, and encourage the media to report news fairly and objectively.

    • • Project for Excellence in Journalism:
    • – An initiative by journalists to clarify and raise the standards of American journalism  

    • • The Committee to Protect Journalists: 
    • – An independent, nonprofit organization promo6ng press freedom worldwide by defending the rights of journalists to report the news without fear of reprisal.
  63. **Media Literacy & Awareness:
    • Media education can help mitigate the harmful effects of the media.

    • Parental co‐viewing of and commenting on the programs seems to reduce the effects of TV violence on the child.

    • • Media literacy -­‐ the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us. 
    • – Learning to move a passive receiver of media to an active critical receiver of it.

    • Media awareness organizations seek to increase awareness and control of the media by key groups, omen targeting children and youth
  64. **The 10 Basic Principles of Media Literacy Education
    1. Medium. The form of communication that transmits messages, tells stories, structures learning, and constructs a “reality” about the world.

    2. Media literacy. An educational approach that seeks to give media users greater freedom and choice by teaching them how to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce media.

    3. Construction of reality. Media construct our culture, which involves trade-­‐offs. Ask yourself: What are the trade-­‐offs in this media experience? Who produced this media? What kind of reality does this media create? How accurate is this “reality”? What stories are NOT being told and why?

    4. Production techniques. Media use identifiable production techniques (camera angles, editing, sound effects, colors and symbols, etc.). Ask: What kinds of produc6on techniques does this media employ?

    5. Value messages. Media contain ideological and value messages. Ask: What kinds of value messages does this media promote?

    6. Commercial motives. Media are commercial and business interests. Ask: What are the commercial motives behind this media? Who or what paid for this media and why? Who or what owns this media product?

    7. Individual meanings. Individuals construct their own meaning of media. Ask: What meanings do YOU find in this media? What different meanings might other individuals or groups find?

    8. Emotional transfer. Commercials and other multimedia experiences operate primarily at an emotional level and are usually designed to transfer the emotion from one symbol or lifestyle onto another. Ask: What emotions does this media tap? What might we consider if we think more deeply about this media?

    9. Pacing. TV runs at 30 frames per second; movies at 24 frames per second. The conscious mind can process about 8 frames per second; hence, television and movies tend to keep us from conscious analysis and reflection about individual messages and larger industry contexts. Ask: What do you observe about this media upon reflection?

    10. Symbolic rhetoric/techniques of persuasion. Symbols, flattery, repetition, fear, humor, words, and sexual images are common and effective techniques of media persuasion. Ask: What persuasive techniques is this media using?
  65. Leading causes of death; in US:
    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death, accounting for 617,00 deaths in 2008.
  66. Life Expectancy Rates: Men vs Woman; blacks?
    Men’s life expectancy: 75.5; Womans: 80.4 ; blacks live 5 years shorter than whites.
  67. Infant Mortality Rates:
    Little progress in lowering the US infant mortality rate from 2000-07
  68. sociological perspective on health:
    Health is a result of a in individual genetic makeup, income, and education status, health behaviors, communities  and the environment to which an individual is exposed to.
  69. Epidemiology:
    the sociology of health and illness includes the this field; the study of the patterns in the distribution and frequency of sickness, injury and death and the social factors that shape them.

    They use three primary factors of health: fertility, mortality and morbidity.
  70. Fertility & Rates: 
    -Measure?
    -2009.
    -Fecundity
    • level of childbearing for an indivudal or a population.
    • -this measure of is the “crude birthrate: the number of live births per 1000 women b/w ages 15-44 in a population.
    • -In 2009, US crude birth rate was 13.5 B/1000 women.
    • -Related to fecundity: the maximum number of children that could be born (based on the number of women of childbearing age in the population)
  71. Mortality: 
    -measure?
    -2010 rates?
    • the incidence of death in a population, the measure is:
    • -“crude death rate” (the number of deaths per 100,000 people in a population per year).
  72. -For 2010: The US death rate was 798.7 deaths per 100,000 people.
  73. The leading causes of death are
    -among young?
    -among elderly?
    Chronic conditions such as coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory disease.

    Among the young, causes of death are unintentional injuries, homicide and suicide.

    Elderly: caused by chronic diseases (chronic bronchitis, diabetes)
  74. Infant Mortality: 
    -2010 values?
    -Which minority?
    -Why do we have high infant mortality?
    rate of infant death per 1000 live births

    -2010: the infant morality rate was 6.14 deaths, it is a basic indicator of well being of a population.

    • -although US infant mortality rates have declined, it’s increased within minorities ;
    • 11.61 deaths of blacks.

    -US has one of the highest Infant Mortality rates among industrialized countries due to lack of health care.
  75. Morbidity:
    The study of illnesses and disease
  76. Incidence Rate:

    Prevalence rate:
    Incidence Rate: the number of new cases within a population during a specific period

    Prevalence rate: the total number of cases involving a specific health problem during a specific period; measures frequency of long-term or chornic illnesses like diabetes or illnesses.
  77. Acute illnesses:
    strike suddenly and disappear quickly (chicken pox, flu)
  78. Functionalism:  (Health)
    • Emile Durkheim treated suicide as a social fact, identified the relationship b/w suicide and the level social attachment or regulation b/w an individual and society.
    • -sick role
  79. The Parts of sick role
    The theory addresses how individuals are expected to act and to be treated while sick.

    • There are four parts; shows the authority level of doctors.
    • 1.Excused from fulfilling their normal social role; excused from work
    • 2.Sick people are not held responsible for the illness
    • 3. Illness is a temporary condition, and sick people must try to get well
    • 4. Sick people are expected to visit the medical authorities and follow their advice
  80. Conflict theorists: (Health)
    patterns of health and illness are related to systematic inequalities based on ethnicity, race or gender and on differences in power, values and interests, can take a traditional Marxist position and argue that our medical industry is based on a capitalist system based on profit motive
  81. Feminist Perspective:  (Health)
    “Medicalization" refers to the process through which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem (childbirth, menopause, PMS, and mensuration); seen as a medical control of women; aging women are set up for medicalization
  82. compare men/women in terms who outlives who and causes of death? 
    -difference in mortality attributed to 3 factors?
    Women live longer than men

    three leading causes of death for males and females are identical: <3 disease, cancer and stroke; but women experience higher rates of nonfatal chronic conditions

    -difference in mortality attributed to 3 factors: genetics, risk taking and health care
  83. why the poor are more likely to be ill than than those who are more well off?
    Factors include standard of living, work conditions, housing conditions, access to better quality of food, leisure activities and the social and psychological connections w/other at work, home and in community.

    Poor are exposed more to hazardous conditions, chemical pollution, inadequate and unsafe housing contributes to infection and chronic diseases; including lead poisoning.

    Poor have bad diet, don’t have time to exercise and adopt other bad behaviors due to stress. 

    Lack of healthcare also.
  84. How much money roughly spent as a country on healthcare and how we rank to other countries?
    The US spends 18% of its gross domestic product on health care; with 2.6 TRILLION dollars spent on total health care; but the US under performs relative to other countries on health performance; we have no form of universal health coverage;

    • US ranked last on:
    • efficiency  (maximizing the quality of care and outcomes given the system’s resource) equity (providing care that not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status)
  85. What is the first state to provide universal health care coverage?
    Massachusetts became the first state in 2006
  86. What does state children health insurance programs cover?
    For uninsured low income children 18 years or younger; targets the children of working parents; pays for regular checkups, immunization, prescription medicines and hospitalizations
  87. What finances the pharmaceutical assistant contract for elderly program, financed from?
    State lottery proceeds
  88. who has highest rate of infant mortality in US?
    Blacks.
  89. where are most US medical students recruited from; what economic class?
    Upperclass
  90. what approx percent of bankrupt due to medical bills/illness:
    Harvard contributed to 62% of all bankrupticies  contributed to illness or med bills
  91. Rank in terms of time; what are the media that US spends most time on?
    • a. TV: 1613 hours
    • b.  Music 177 hours
    • c. Home videos 61 hours
    • d. Newspaper 171 hours
    • e. Magazines: 125
    • f. Internet: 189
  92. Media:
    “different technological processes that facilitate communication b/w the sender of the message and the receiver of that message
  93. Functionalism:
    media frames our understanding about our lives, our nation and world; creates a collective consciousness (Emile Durkeheim)
  94. Digital divide; based on?
    • Digitial Divide: The ermerging split between those with and those without access to computers and the Internet.
    • -A social inequality based on income, educational attainment and ethnicity/race. Higher used among whites/blacks; associated w/ higher incomes and educational attainment.

    Barriers of online content: lack of locally relevant info; and lack of information at a basic literacy level (most internet tutorials are diff to understand)
  95. Connection between media & crime or fear in society?
  96. What percentage of internet use in the work place isn't work related?
    5%!
  97. Percent of commercial TV stations owned by blacks?
    Given: People of color own 3% of commercial television stations o:
  98. Conflicts in Egypt... facebook and twitter flooded with?

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